A network was established to acquire basic knowledge of Cryptococcus neoformans in IberoAmerican countries. To this effect, 340 clinical, veterinary, and environmental isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, Guatemala, and Spain were typed by using M13 polymerase chain reaction-fingerprinting and orotidine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase (URA5) gene restriction fragment length polymorphsm analysis with HhaI and Sau96I in a double digest. Both techniques grouped all isolates into eight previously established molecular types. The majority of the isolates, 68.2% (n=232), were VNI (var. grubii, serotype A), which accords with the fact that this variety causes most human cryptococcal infections worldwide. A smaller proportion, 5.6% (n=19), were VNII (var. grubii, serotype A); 4.1% (n=14), VNIII (AD hybrid), with 9 isolates having a polymorphism in the URA5 gene; 1.8% (n=6), VNIV (var. neoformans, serotype D); 3.5% (n=12), VGI; 6.2% (n=21), VGII; 9.1% (n=31), VGIII, and 1.5% (n=5) VGIV, with all four VG types containing var. gattii serotypes B and C isolates.
|Meyer W, Castañeda A, Jackson S, Huynh M, Castañeda E. Molecular Typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(2):189-195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0902.020246|
|Meyer W, Castañeda A, Jackson S, et al. Molecular Typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(2):189-195. doi:10.3201/eid0902.020246.|
|Meyer, W., Castañeda, A., Jackson, S., Huynh, M., & Castañeda, E. (2003). Molecular Typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(2), 189-195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0902.020246.|
Urban dengue is common in most countries of the Americas, but has been rare in the United States for more than half a century. In 1999 we investigated an outbreak of the disease that affected Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Laredo, Texas, United States, contiguous cities that straddle the international border. The incidence of recent cases, indicated by immunoglobulin M antibody serosurvey, was higher in Nuevo Laredo, although the vector, Aedes aegypti, was more abundant in Laredo. Environmental factors that affect contact with mosquitoes, such as air-conditioning and human behavior, appear to account for this paradox. We conclude that the low prevalence of dengue in the United States is primarily due to economic, rather than climatic, factors.
|Reiter P, Lathrop S, Bunning ML, Biggerstaff BJ, Singer D, Tiwari T, et al. Texas Lifestyle Limits Transmission of Dengue Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(1):86-89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0901.020220|
|Reiter P, Lathrop S, Bunning ML, et al. Texas Lifestyle Limits Transmission of Dengue Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(1):86-89. doi:10.3201/eid0901.020220.|
|Reiter, P., Lathrop, S., Bunning, M. L., Biggerstaff, B. J., Singer, D., Tiwari, T....Hayes, E. (2003). Texas Lifestyle Limits Transmission of Dengue Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(1), 86-89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0901.020220.|