Sir Isaac Newton was born in the county of Lincolnshire, England in 1643. His father died just months before he was born, and when he was three years old, his mother left him in the care of his grandmother. Isaac was always a top student, and went off to the University of Cambridge at age 19. While at Cambridge, Newton was influenced by the writings of Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Johannes Kepler. By 1665, Newton began developing a mathematical theory that would lead to the development of calculus, one of the fundamental branches of mathematics. Newton would go on to discover other important math theories such as Newton’s Identities, and Newton’s Method.
In 1670, Newton moved on to the study of optics and developed theories relating to the composition of white light and the spectrum of colors. In one of his famous experiments, he refracted white light with a prism, resolving it into its constituent colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. As a result of his experiments, he developed Newton’s Theory of Color, which claimed that objects appear certain colors because they absorb and reflect different amounts of light. Newton was the first scientist to maintain that color was determined solely by light, and his findings created much controversy. Most scientists thought that prisms colored light. Nevertheless, Newton then created the world’s first color wheel, which arranged different colors around the circumference of a circle. He is also credited as the first scientist to explain the formation of a rainbow – from water droplets dispersed in the atmosphere. In 1679, Newton continued his work on gravitation and its effects on the planets. In 1687, he published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In this landmark work, Newton explained his three laws of motion, which included his theory on gravity. According to Newton, gravity is the reason that objects fall to the ground when dropped. Moreover, gravity is the reason why planets orbit the sun, while moons orbit planets, and why ocean tides exist. Newton’s theories remain among the most important concepts in the history of science. There is some evidence that Newton’s ideas concerning gravity were inspired by apples falling from trees. There is no evidence to suggest, however, that any of the apples hit him in the head (as cartoons and fables suggest). Below are Newton’s three laws of motion: Newton’s First Law ( Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.Newton’s Second Law states that an applied force on an object equals the time rate of change of its momentum. Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Following the publication of his work, Newton became instantly famous throughout Europe. In the later years of his life he wrote several articles on interpretation of the bible. He was also appointed a member of the British Parliament and spent many years reforming the Royal Mint (coin making agency of Parliament). He died on March 20, 1727.
Sir Isaac Newton, a physicist, an astronomer, mathematician, theologian, alchemist and philosopher; and excelling beyond our imagination. He was the greatest in every one of those fields.
Early life of Isaac Newton
Newton was born on 4th January (Christmas Day according to the then calendar) 1642 in England and he died on 31st March, 1727. He was a premature baby; and small enough to fit inside a quart sized cup; and whose chances of survival were dim.
Newton used to cover the walls of his room with his colorful drawings and would fly kites, with lamps attached to their bases. He had even crafted a water clock as a kid. He made a mouse tread on a treadmill so that it could produce power to move a small windmill.
Newton always liked to fidget and discover new things. He had once struck a needle in his eyeball and moved it around till he saw white and colored circles. He did recover from the injurious incident.
He never let his stuttering speech inhibit him from expressing his thoughts and discoveries.
Newton was miserable in studies. But after physically beating up a bully at school, he decided to outwit him in studies also.
Newton had tried farming but had failed miserably at it.
Achievements of Isaac Newton
- “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” was the famous book written by Newton, and which contained his notion of gravity and the three laws of motion. Newton had observed an apple falling from the tree; and had induced that there must be an outside force acting which pulls an object to the ground. His law of inertia states that an object will remain in rest unless moved by another force. His second law of acceleration states that a heavier object will require more force to move. And his third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
- Newton’s 6 inch constructed telescope, allowed him to see Jupiter’s moons.
- Newton had used a prism to show that sunlight contained all of the colors of the rainbow. He also showed how white light contained all the colors found in nature. He also displayed how light would reflect, retract and absorb against objects and thus create various colors.
- Newton analyzed that the time it would take for a body to cool depended on the temperature difference between the surroundings and the object.
- Newton had invented the pet door; where pets could enter and exit the house without disturbing anyone.
- Newton’s studies on light and planetary motion paved way for the first visit to the Moon.
- Newton had formulated the field of Calculus, in mathematics; which calculates the rate of how things change; like the speeding of a car.
- Newton was a very religious person; and would spend hours in studying and writing about the Bible. He had formulated the famous mathematical formula to calculate the value of Pi.
- Newton had been appointed as the Warden of the Mint; where he had successfully nabbed 28 fraudsters trying to counterfeit money.
Later Life and Death
- He was knighted by the Queen and thus earned the title of Sir.
- Newton had predicted that the world would end in 2060.
- He was shy in the one year of Parliament duty, and only spoke once; and that to ask someone to close the window.
- His dog Diamond, by mistake, had ruined 20 years of his research by igniting the laboratory.
- Newton’s interest in alchemy (forming gold and silver) and experimenting with mercury; ultimately led to his death being a result of mercury poisoning.