How to write a brilliant psychology essay.
March 5, 2011 at 6:00 pm
A wise man once said “there are three things that are 100% certain in life:
- We will be born
- We will die one day
- Psychology students will have a horrible amount of essays to write during their studies.”
And you know what? He was right!
In this blog post, I aim to provide a few pointers towards writing an essay that will get you a first. Of course, this will likely apply to any college students as well, but you usually require much less work at A-Level standard than degree level.
So, what how exactly do you write a good psychology essay?
Leave yourself plenty of time before your deadline.
Perhaps the most important point, it’s crucial to leave your self time to prepare! Leaving an entire essay until the night before is an almost guaranteed way to drop a few grade points. Granted, some people have the amazing ability to get first’s without any effort, but there’s no harm in getting an early start.
Research around the topic thoroughly
Very often lectures will contain the fundamental research in a given area. For example, you can’t really have a lecture on short-term memory without mentioning Atkinson and Shiffrin’s (1968) Multi-Store Model of Memory, right? The important thing however, is to not stick with what is safe. Sure, lecturer’s know best and include the most relevant research, but copying all of the lecture studies will get you no more than a 2:1 (in the second/third year anyway).
Make sure you use all the sources you have – books, journal articles, eJournal databases (such as Web of Science and PSYCarticles if you have access to them at University), e-books, webpages (make sure they’re credible though!), Google Scholar etc. If you’ve taken the first point into consideration, you should have plenty of time to research the topic thoroughly and pick out studies which support what you need to say. Unless you know your topic inside-out, you’ll probably find it pretty hard to write anything of good quality.
Plan, plan… and plan.
For those who write a lot and are more spontaneous, this may not be as useful. For the majority of people, however, it will be hugely beneficial to sit down and structure the essay before you begin writing. I find sometimes if I don’t plan, I end up writing and find new research which means I’m going back and forth all the time and lose my flow. Of course, some people might prefer this method of adding as you go; it’s by no means a bad thing. Planning can be very worthwhile though, and will save a lot of time in the long run. Plan what you will include in the introduction – what exact is the essay about? Then decide in what order you will include your research, and structure those paragraphs accordingly.
For an essay on schizophrenia, for example, you might begin by explaining what schizophrenia is. Then you might have a paragraph detailing prevalence rates, and research that supports these figures. Next you might look at the aetiology – possibly with a paragraph on each cause (such as biological causes, neurology, pharmacological explanations etc.). Next you might outline the main treatments, before ending on a conclusion of findings.
Be aware of the dreaded word limit.
Something that irks me more than I would ever imagine is that horrible word limit. I’d say most essays range from 1000-2500 words, and it’s very important you are aware of how many yours is. There’s a huge difference between a 1000 word essay and 2000 word one; you’ll be expected to have a lot more research in the latter. It also gives you a good idea of how much time you will need to invest in relation to other assignments, and how much detail you’re expected to include. Try not to overrun the limit; it’s very difficult to cut words out once you’re over. Usually you’ll be given a 10% either way lee-way (1800-2200 for a 2000 word essay), but CHECK with your tutors first.
Make sure you’re answering the question and nothing else.
It’s very easy, especially when you get engrossed in research, to begin including things that don’t really answer the question. If your essay title is “The effects of drugs on neurotransmission“, it is not helpful just to write all about drugs and then about neurotransmission. You need to look at the effects of the drugs, not just them both individually. Similarly, the long term effect of drugs on the heart, for example, is irrelevant to the question. Make sure you really think about what the research is saying before throwing it in an essay. Just make sure everything you include links back to the main topic, and really has a purpose for being there. As mentioned before, words are golden in essays, so make every single one count!
Cite as many studies as you can find.
Although there’s certainly no need to take that too literally, it is useful to back up most (if not ALL) of your points with valid research. When you read what you’ve put, ask yourself if there’s anything you can do to support it. Saying things like “many studies show the effect of X on Y” without naming any studies is just not going to work in your favour. A better statement would be “many studies show the effect of X and Y (Example et al., 2011; Smith and Bloggs; 1995)”. It’s also a good idea to use recent research (within the past 10 years), because it shows you’ve really looked into the area in depth to find relevant research.
It’s also really worth looking at full text journal articles when they’re available. That way, you can read the introduction to their work, which very often includes a lot of research which will also apply to your topic. Then you can access THOSE full text articles, and so on. In a way you’re “article surfing”, and finding lots of quality research along the way.
I have a few friends who’ve actually dropped grade points because of tiny referencing errors, like not putting something in italics. There’s a very strict bunch of guidelines for referencing everything you use – so stick to it! The guidelines are plastered over the internet, and for the lazy amongst you, here are the three main sources you will use and how they are referenced in APA format. Please note some Universities might require you to use another format, but mine uses APA which is what I will describe below. So, here’s how to reference with APA guidelines:
Primary journal sources:
Author, A. B., Author C. D & Author D. E. (Year). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number(issue number), page no.-page no.
Battle, Y., Martin, B., Dorfmanc, J. & Miller, S. (1999). Seasonality and infectious disease in schizophrenia: the birth hypothesis revisited. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33(6), 501-509.
Books (but not chapters, just the whole thing):
Author, A. B. & Author, C. (Publish Date). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Tsuang, M., & Faraone, S. (1990). The Genetics of Mood Disorders. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Author, A. (Date Published). Article name. Name of website. [Retrieved] Date, [from] URL of website.
American Psychological Association. (2008). HIV Office on Psychology Education (HOPE). Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/hope.html
If there’s a dot there, put it in. If it’s in italics, do it! It takes a few seconds and could be the difference between a 2:1 and 1st depending on the strictness of the markers!
Take pride in the presentation.
I’m guessing you’ve probably been given presentation pointers already by your University, if so – follow them! If not, it only takes a few seconds at the end of the assignment to make sure the fonts are easy to read, the size is appropriate etc. For all my assignments, I put them in Times New Roman, 12pt, line spacing at 1.5 or 2 lines. Make sure to put page numbers at the bottom, and include a header with your student number/ID and the module title. Include a cover sheet as well if that’s what your department asks for.
SPAG is crucial, but you should know that by now…
As if you haven’t heard it enough, spelling, punctuation and grammar are crucial! Simple rules you should have learnt at GCSE or even earlier should still apply now. Paragraphs should be used properly, everything should be spelt correctly and punctuation in the right places. Sentences are meant to be no longer than 25 words. If you can’t spell properly and use the right grammar, it just looks really bad for you when someone comes to mark it. A badly spelt essay just looks… stupid, and you’ll get a grade to reflect that.
I think that’s pretty much it!
If there’s a couple of those pointers that are most important, it’s leave yourself lots of time to research and prepare & research the topic area thoroughly. Lecturers can really tell when someone has explored the topic well, and it will show in the writing. Psychology is an academic study, so use loads of studies to support all your statements. If you do that, you’re pretty much guaranteed a first as long as you write it up correctly, and ALWAYS link back to the question!
If I think of anymore points, I’ll add them in the future!
Thanks for reading,
Entry filed under: Other. Tags: essays, Students.
How to tell if someone is lying… maybe.Attribution.
Content of this article
- Outline sample
- Tips on writing
- List of topics
How to Write a Psychology Essay
A psychology essay is an article that tackles a certain aspect of psychology.
Before writing a psychology essay, it is important first to understand the question at hand.
It serves the following purposes:
- To explain a particular concept: a psychology essay tries to explain a certain aspect like for example, what causes fears and phobias;
- To encourage creativity: a psychology essay improves the creativity of students as they are required to think out of their comfort zone and write an article that stands out;
- To give a diagnosis: the student can write a psychology essay to explain why they think that a particular diagnosis is necessary. It explains the reasons behind the diagnosis arrived at.
Outline for a psychology essay
Before writing an essay on psychology, it is important first to understand what the topic is all about. Reread general notes on the area before narrowing down to your area of interest. Doing this makes it easier to settle on a subject. Besides, follow the tips for a psychology essay writing to make your work easier.
Below is a sample of an essay on psychology
Personality and Character
In interpersonal relationships, various factors contribute to the sustenance of a relationship. Different people have different personalities and how they relate to each other is different. Understanding personalities lead to better interpersonal relationships.
Different circumstances shape personality traits and characters and therefore influence how they interact with others.
- Girls who grow up in violent homes have self-esteem issues. Seeing their mom being abused gives them a false understanding that being a woman is worthless.
- A person who grew up without siblings becomes more inclined to being self-centered as they are not accustomed to sharing.
- An introvert is more likely to have fun when staying indoors with friends rather than going out or hanging out in crowded areas.
Various factors shape personality and character and these factors should not be overlooked. The environment that a person grows greatly influences their future life.
The above outline for a psychology essay looks at effects and influences of environment on the character.
Good tips on writing
1. Tips concerning introduction for a psychology essay
- The first step to writing a good psychology essay introduction is to have a rough idea of what you are about to write. Having some previous knowledge on the topic ensures that you become more competent and research widely.
- Secondly, have a global structure- this ensures that you have a coherent sentence and flow of ideas. The psychology essay draft tells you whether your content will be enough and lets you know if you have the know-how on how to go about the topic. This method of psychology essay writing is very helpful.
- How to start a psychology essay is challenging for many writers. It is, therefore, necessary to follow the guidelines as shown by the lecturer or from copies found on the internet and various other sources. Start with a catchy phrase or a story. The purpose is to attract the reader from the very beginning. The rule of the thumb in the introduction is always to be creative. Readers should look forward to reading your essay and not just skimming through it.
- Write your introduction in short flowing sentences. They give your essay a touch of excellence. When writing very long sentences, use commas to allow the reader to breathe.
- Ensure your topic is written well and not too wordy. It should not have more than ten words. The topic sentence should show the reader what your essay discusses. Having a long topic sentence confuses the reader as they cannot pick out the theme to be discussed.
2. Psychology essay tips on thesis writing
- The thesis is the main point of the piece. Choose a topic that is relevant and has a case study to back up your theory.
- The thesis question and statement should not be too broad for you to cover. Narrow down on a particular topic to ensure quality work in research. The thesis statement should be well thought out to elude knowledge and mastery of content.
- Try as much as possible to paraphrase and not to copy and paste thesis from the internet from a pre-written essay on psychology. If researching, rephrase it to avoid plagiarism. Most people are tempted to copy directly from the web.
3. Tips on writing the body (length, paragraphs, and transitions)
- The body carries the weight of the thesis. Have knowledge and understanding of your topic- do not write a subject that you will have no content. Show that you understand all specifics of your research question and can relate them to real life situations.
- Have critical evaluation- your assumptions should have relevant evidence both in theory and application. It requires insightful and independent thinking. When mentioning any theory, ensure that you have a case to defend how to apply the theory. The body should be well written. When writing an essay on psychology, the body, and language is crucial.
- Avoid using too much jargon in your writing. In case you do use some technical terms, explain them. Complexities in essay writing make the reader bored. Explain your themes in well laid out independent paragraphs. Each section should carry a point or two. Ensure that the points do not run over to the next paragraph.
4. Tips on how to conclude a psychology essay
Like all other essays. How you write the psychology essay conclusion is critical.
- Introduce the conclusion in a unique manner.
- Avoid using words like ‘to conclude.’
- Your conclusion for a psychology essay sums up your arguments. Give the consequences of your study concerning your research.
- Do not introduce new concepts.
- Make sure that you cover all the topics in the body so as not to defend them in conclusion.
5. Sources for psychology essay
There are so many materials where the student can gather essay questions:
- Books on psychology are useful in getting the concepts.
- The internet provides various themes and psychology essay guides.
- Brainstorming from a general topic and narrowing down.
- A literature review is also a valuable source for ideas and other psychology essay writing help that you may need.
- Try to interact with teachers for more information and psychology essay writing guides.
6. Finalizing the essay
The final step of writing an article is proofreading. Proofread to correct spelling, punctuations, and other grammatical errors. Ensure you check out for plagiarism. Your work should be original and creative. Use citations and proper referencing of sources. There are different referencing styles like Harvard, Chicago or APA. The writer can also give out the written copy to friends for feedback. Be prepared to get both negative and positive criticism. Finally, ensure that you have a glossary of technical terms well defined for the reader to understand. The psychology essay outlining should be done as required.
7. Tips on topic choice
- Research widely on different disciplines before settling for a topic.
- Pick an area that you have an interest as this is a high motivation for research.
- Refer to other items to find out the outline.
- Be flexible that is, allow yourself to have room for change. After writing the body, your arguments might end up defending a different topic
- Have a list of keywords you intend to use
- Ensure you have the available material for your topic
Below is a list of available topics for a psychology essay that the student can pick from for your psychology essay writing.
List of topics for psychology essay
- What are the different types of personalities?
- Discuss the relationship between dreams and reality
- Eating disorders
- Depression and stress management
- Attitude and attitude change
- Mental health
- Perception and the knowledge process
- Hypnosis and psychological unconscious