Human Rights In Pakistan Essay With Outline For Research

38 Essay Outlines

(1) Religion: A Solution or Itself An Issue

1. Introduction:
2. An overview of major religions and their injunctions:
3. Some issues apparently created by religion:
- Inter-religious hatred.
- Sectarianism.
- Fanaticism and Intolerance.
- Traditionalism and Conservatism.
- Gender Discrimination.
- Fatalism.
4. Do religion really cause a problems or is it merely an allegation?
5. Causes of misunderstanding about religion:
- Negative role of religious leaders and so called icons.
- Ineffective contribution by the media.
- Insufficient focus on religious education in modern educational institutions.
- Pursuit of political motives in the guise of religion.
- Lack of civilization.
6. Actual causes of the problems faced by world:
- Political power games.
- Economic motives of the nations.
- Lack of civilization in human beings.
- Missing element of character building in educational institutes.
- Poor control over and monitoring of scientific advancement.
- Deleterious impacts of electronic and social media.
7. Do religion provide a solution to the issues the present world is confronted with?
Yes all religions:
- Propagate Humanism and provide mechanism for the creation of a terror free world.
- Inculcate moral values and provide solutions to the issues of moral degradation.
- Encourage generosity and benevolence to resolve poverty and privation issues.
- Spread patience and restrain and thus develop a society free of atrocities and injustices.
- Inculcate sense of accountability and responsibility in society and address the issue of flouting of laws, rules and principles.
- Teach self-restraint and self control and resolve all issues created by rapacity and avarice.
8. Recommendations for the dissemination of true massage of the religion:
- Positive role of religious icons.
- Government’s patronizing the dissemination of religion in its pure form.
- Introduction of religion as integral part of curricula.
- Positive role of media.
- Focus on similarities in different religions.
9. Recommendations for the solutions of world issues:
- Effective role of UNO.
- End of power game.
- Effective role of media in sensitization of brains.
- Devising modus operandi for countering the detrimental effects of scientific advancement.
- Diverting energies towards the achievement of SDGs.
- Compassionate, considerate and solicitous attitude of the superpowers.
10. Conclusion:

(2) Backwardness of Women Leads to Backwardness of The Nation.

1. Introduction:

2. Different facts of women backwardness:

• Illiteracy.
• Economic deprivation.
• Malnutrition.
• Limited role in decision making.
• Sexual Harassment.
• Domestic Violence.
• Early or Childhood marriages.
• Excessive pregnancies.

3. Does backwardness of women leads to backwardness of the nation:
Yes it’s true! It’s backwardness of women that:
• results in morally weak society which is full of:
- Crimes.
- Corruption and favoritism.
- Ineptness and incompetence.
- Drug addiction.
• Wreak havoc with the economy of the country by affecting:
- Decrease in GDP.
- Decrease in Exports.
- Decrease in the tax revenue of the state.
- Rise in Inflation.
- Increase in poverty.
• Adversely affects the health of the nation because of:
- Poor knowledge of hygiene and cleanliness.
- Poor knowledge of Nutrition.
- Ignorance of ways to stay healthy.
• Generates the issue of overpopulation:
• Creates deteriorates impact on the image of the country.

4. Causes of women backwardness:
• Religious Causes:
- Negative role of so-called religious leaders.
- Misinterpretation of religious injunctions.
- Less consideration of Ijtihad in Muslim states.
• Political Causes:
- Lack of political will.
- Poor of insufficient legislation.
- Lack of representation in decision making.
• Social Causes:
- Illiteracy of men.
- Taboos, customs and traditions.
- Security issues.
- High rate of childbirth.
• Economic Causes:
- Poverty at domestic level.
- Budgetary constraint at national level.
- Lack of economic opportunities.

5. Different steps being taken at national and international level for women empowerment:
• Millennium Development Goals MDGs:
• Sustainable Development Goals:
• Different laws and Policies:
• Awareness Campaigns:
• Role of NGOs:

6. Recommendations for the Amelioration of women conditions:
• Propagation of True Massage of Islam Through Moderate Religious Leaders:
• Enactment and Strict Implementation of Laws for:
- End of domestic violence.
- Provide security at workplace.
- Control early childhood marriages.
• Fixation and enhancement of Quotas in:
- Elected bodies at national as well as provincial legislature.
- Educational Institutions.
- Jobs in Public as well as private sector.
• Counseling of the Male Members of the Society:
• Awareness Campaigns:
• Allocation of More Budget for:
- Women education.
- Population control programs.
- Soft loans.
- Women’s health and nutrition.

7. Some other recommendations for the development of a nation:
• Focus on Education:
• Allocation of More Budget for Research and Development:
• Eradication of Corruption:
• Sustenance of Democracy and Political Stability:
• Rule of Law:
• Promotion of Accountability culture:
• Devolution of Power and Authority:

8. Conclusion:

(3) Industrial Sector of Pakistan. (Situation, Issues and Solutions)

1. Introduction:

2. Industrial Sector and Its Components:

3. Importance of Industrial Sector for a Country:

4. Different Phases of Industrial Development in Pakistan:

• 1950s: The Era of Rapid Industrial Growth:
• 1960s: The Era of Industrial Stabilization:
• 1970s: Nationalization and its Impacts:
• 1980s: Russian-Afghan war and Pro-Industrial policies of Zia:
• 1990s: The Decade of Privatization:
• Post 9/11: Commercialization under Musharaf:

5. Present Situation of Industrial Sector of Pakistan:
• Situation of Manufacturing sector:
- Large Scale manufacturing sector.
- Small Scale manufacturing sector.
• Situation of Construction Sector:
• Situation of Mining Sector:
• Situation of Electricity Generation and Distribution Sector:

6. Issue Confronting the Industrial Sector of Pakistan:
• Economic Issues:
- Energy crisis.
- Huge bank spread.
- Devaluation of currency.
- Under-utilization of national resources.
- Lack of infrastructure.
• Social Issues:
- Marginalized role of women.
- Overpopulation.
- Malnutrition and diseases.
- Corruption.
- Slackness and Lethargy.
• Political Issues:
- Terrorism.
- Flawed Policies.
- International isolation.
- Political instability.
• Administrative Issues:
- Poor performance of state-owned enterprises.
- Labyrinthine procedures and processes in government offices.
- Poor law and order situation.
- Weak criminal justice system.
- Lack of focus on R&D.

7. Some Workable Solutions to the Industrial Sector Issues:
• Provision of Uninterrupted and Cheap Supply of Energy to the Industrial Sector on Preferential Basis:
• Provision of Cheap and Easy Credit Facility:
• Maximum Extraction and Utilization of Indigenous Mineral Resources:
• Effective and Beneficial use of Women Workplace:
• Provision of Necessary Healthcare Facilities for the Labor:
• Eradication of the Scourge of Terrorism:
• Research based and Workable Industrial Policies:
• Sustenance of Democracy and Political Stability:
• Promotion of Public-Private Partnership:
• Improved Law and Order Situation and Protection of Property Rights:
• Reservation of Substantial Budget for Research and Development:

8. Conclusion:

(4) Pak-China Relations

1. Introduction:

2. Some Facts about China and Pakistan:

3. Historical evidence of Pak-China Friendship:

- Border settlement between Pakistan and China.
- Role of China in Pakistan-India war.
- Chinese support for Pakistan at UNSC.
- China and Nuclear Program of Pakistan.
- Role of China in the Defense needs of Pakistan.
- Pakistan’s support to China at the times of isolation.
- Pakistan’s role in bridging the gap between China and US.

4. Present Contours of Pak-China Relations:
• Economic Aspect:
- Chinese investment in the form of CPEC.
- Flourishing trade between two countries.
- FDI share from China.
- Cheap exports and Imports for China.
• Social Aspect:
- Infrastructure development in Pakistan.
- Ongoing and future energy projects in Pakistan.
- Efforts for the eradication of terrorism.
- Upgraded living standards in Pakistan.
- Disaster management in Pakistan.
• Political Aspect:
- Strings of Pearls policy.
- India as a mutual enemy.
- Stability of Afghanistan.
- US inclination toward India.
- Pakistan’s SCO membership.
- Strategic importance of Gwadar for China.

5. Challenges to the Friendship:
- Uyghur separatist’s movement.
- Targeted killings of Chinese workers in Pakistan.
- Pakistan’s engagement with the US.
- Changing nature of China-India relationship.
- Failure of CPEC project.
- Increasing gaps between economies of both countries.
- Lack of harmony in political parties of Pakistan.

6. Recommendations for future Strengthening of Bonds:
• Pakistan’s Role:
- No Support for terrorism in Xinjiang.
- Provision of foolproof security to Chinese workers.
- Political consensus over national agenda.
- Early implementation of CPEC Projects.
- No Overtures to US at the cost of China.
- Struggle for improvement of national image.
- Joint efforts for stability in Afghanistan.
• China’s Role:
- Support for Kashmir Cause.
- More assistance in energy projects.
- Enhanced trade ties.
- Assistance in the field of Education and research and development.
- Pakistan’s entry into SCO.

7. Conclusion:

(5) Democracy is no more Vulnerable in Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. An Overview of Pakistan’s Political History:
- The game of musical chair in first nine years.
- Martial Law of General Ayub Khan.
- Revival of democracy after the secession of East Pakistan.
- The murder of democracy and Zia regime.
- Era of 90s –the miracle of Article 58(2b).
- Plane Hijacking case and martial law of Musharaf.
- Controlled democracy during Musharaf regime.
- Charter of democracy and revival of democracy in Pakistan.
3. Factors behind the derailment of Democracy in Past:
- Absence of patriotic, nationalist, competent and better styled leadership.
- Overdependence on Army under the influence of antagonistic and uncongenial relations with neighboring countries.
- Anemic, impotent and spineless political institutions.
- Frail, feeble
4. Is Democracy still Vulnerable in Pakistan?
No the Situation is changed as now we have:
- Sovereign, watchful and well founded media institution.
- A vigilant and proactive civil society extremely alive to the importance of democracy.
- A judiciary that appears to be contrite and remorseful for its past character.
- Political leadership which looks conscientious enough to protect democracy even at the cost of personal gains.
- Military leadership that appears to have more inclination towards fulfilling its professional responsibilities.
- A recent experience of bitter repercussion of dictatorship in Musharaf regime.
5. Indispensability of the Sustenance of Democracy to the Development of Pakistan:
Democracy is important because it:
- Bestows upon the people political maturity and wisdom and enables them to choose the best lot for managing their affairs.
- Ensures consensus-based decision making and helps in the formulation of coherent and practicable policies.
- Promotes the culture of accountability and wipeout the malaises of corruption, inefficiency and nepotism.
- Confers the sense of participation in the various sections of society and thus promotes national integration.
- Confers the sense of freedom upon citizens and wins their loyalty to the state.
- Fosters the culture of equality before law and investigators public faith in institutions.
- Brings political stability and provides an environment conducive to development and growth.
6. Recommendations for the Future Strengthening of Democracy in Pakistan:
- Introduction of meaningful electoral reforms.
- Strengthening local government institutions.
- Improve the performance of democratic government.
- Bringing in purposeful regulation of media to make it more responsible and sensible.
- Enhancing contributory role of educational institutes.
- Ensuring independence of judiciary.
- Reform the civil service to improve the performance of beaurucracy.
7. Conclusion:

(6) Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan (Need for Reform and Institution Building)

1. Introduction:
2. Good Governance and Its Indicators:
3. Importance of Good Governance for a country:
- Importance for the Economic sector.
- Importance for the Political sector.
- Importance for the Social Sector.
4. Is Pakistan Confronting a crisis of Good Governance?.
Yes! The following facts are proof:
- General public’s shattered trust in Government.
- Absence of accountability culture at all levels.
- Lack of transparency in functioning of public organizations.
- Prevalence of Procrastination and red tape in day to day government functioning.
- Inadequate participation of general public in decision making.
- Persistent existence of evil of corruption.
- Absence of rule of law.
- Highly unbalanced development and growth.
- Institutional decay.
- Inadequate delivery of social services.
5. Major Causes of the Deplorable Situation of Governance in Pakistan:
- Frequent derailment of democracy.
- Impotent and puny judiciary.
- Absence of free and mature media.
- Shortsighted and self centered approach of politicians.
- Failure of educational institutions to produce good citizens.
- Excessive politicization of public sector.
- Dismal performance of the Watch Dog Institutes.
- Presence of lacunas and flaws in the criminal justice system.
- Lack of Checks and balance.
- Lack of civic awareness.
- Bureaucracy attitude.
6. Some Measures Taken by Government to Ameliorate the Situation:
- Enactment of Laws.
- Establishment of monitoring organizations and committees.
- Introduction of internal checks and controls.
- Deliberation of introduction of civil services reforms.

7. Recommended Reforms for Institution Building and Improved Governance in Pakistan:
- Active role of politicians, media and civil society to safeguard the democracy.
- Independent and responsible role of judiciary.
- Prudent and mature role of media.
- Introduction of civil services reforms to improve performance of bureaucracy.
- Introduction of technology in public sector.
- Reformation of Watch Dog Institutes.
- Necessary statutory amendments to improve the criminal justice system.
- Accountability at all level.
- Public participation in decision making.
- Role of educational institutions to produce good citizens.
8. Conclusion:

(7) Social Media: A source of Connecting People or Disconnecting Them.

1. Introduction:
2. Different types of Media:
- Print Media.
- Electronic Media.
• Social Media and its Types:
- Blogs and Microblogs.
- Social networking sites (Face book).
- Social Commerce (Amazon, Alibaba)
- Social Media news (Digg).
- VoIP Software (Skype, MSN).
• Social Media as a source of connecting people.
- Connecting with unknown people belonging to other nations and states.
- Connecting people one already know, Irrespective of their location.
- Possibility of staying connected with others round the clock.
- Little cost of maintaining connection.
- Fast and speedy connectivity.
- Easy tracing of lost contacts.
3. Benefits of Connectivity through social Media:
• Social:
- Shares information.
- Upgrades living standard.
- Serves as source of education.
- Eliminates social biases.
• Economic:
- Spreads political awareness.
- Assists in political decision making.
o Arab Spring 2011.
o General Elections in Pakistan 2013.
- Highlights public issues and grievances.
• Political:
- Gives information on economic opportunities.
- Provide platform for economic activities. .
- Renders assistance in economic decision making.
• Religious:
- Imparts religious education.
- Eliminates religious biases.
- Serves as platform of religious preaching.
• Administrative:
- Serves as source of information sharing.
- Assists in quick decision making.
- Helps in ensuring better governance.
4. Social Media as source of Disconnect of the People:
- Weakening of family bonds.
- Decrease in traditional get together.
- Decline in traditional get together.
- Decline in sports activities.
- Scarcity of time.
5. A Glimpse over some other evil of social media:
- Spoil of moral values.
- Wastage of time.
- Acts of cheating and fraud.
- Deleterious impacts on health.
- Promotion of hatred and antagonism.
- Unreliability of information.
6. Causes of Evils of Social Media:
- Absence of proper control mechanism.
- Poor performance of regulatory authorities.
- No focus on character building in educational institutions.
- Absence of other recreational facilities.
- Easy availability of technology..
- Cheaper access to social media sites.
- Incognito access to social media sites.
7. Recommendations for elimination of Harmful Impacts of Social Media:
- Application of some mandatory filters and controls.
- At national level.
- At local level.
- Launching of awareness campaigns.
- Enactment of stringent laws.
- Effective role of regulatory authorities.
- Effective role of education sector in character building.
- Provision of better sports and recreational facilities.
- Enactment of service cost.
8. Conclusion:

(8) Status of Women in Islam

1. Introduction:
2. Status of women before Islam and in Other Religions:
- Status of women in Arabia.
- Status of women in Roman Empire.
- Status of women in Hinduism.
- Status of women in Buddhism.
3. Status of women as Granted by Islam:
• Status in house:
- As a mother.
- As a sister.
- As a wife.
- As a daughter.
• Status in Society:
- Right to life.
- Right to honor and dignity.
- Right to education.
- Right to forming and breaking conjugal relations.
• Status in state:
- Right to enjoy fundamental human rights.
- Right to enjoy citizenship of state.
4. In Today’s world, do Women Actually Enjoys The Status granted to them by Islam:
• No:
5. Causes of poor Status of Women in Islamic States:
• Religious causes:
- Negative role of religious leaders.
- Misinterpretation of religious injunctions.
- Avoidance of Ijtihad in Muslim states.
• Political causes:
- Undemocratic government.
- Lack of political will.
- Poor legislation.
- Lack of representation in decision making I.
• Social Causes:
- Illiteracy of men.
- Taboos, customs and traditions.
- Security issues.
- High childbirth rates.
• Economic causes:
- Poverty at domestic level.
- Budgetary constraints at national level.
- Lack of economic opportunities.
6. Recommendation for the Amelioration of Situation:
- Role of moderate religious leaders to propagate true message of the religion.
- Enactment and strict implementation of laws.
- To end domestic violence.
- To provide security at workplace.
- To control child of early marriages.
- Fixation and enactment of quotas.
o In elected bodies.
o In educational institutions.
o In jobs.
- Counseling of male member of society.
- Awareness campaign.
- Allocation of more budgets.
o For women education.
o For population control programs.
o For soft loans.
o For women health and nutrition.
7. Conclusion:

(9) What are the Hurdles in Our Way to Becoming a Truly Independent State

1. Introduction:
2. Measures to gauge the independence of a state:
3. Critical analysis of Pakistan’s 68 years of independence:
4. Hurdles in our way to becoming a truly independent state:
• Political:
- Problematic borders.
- Military domination: An impediment to development of other state institutions.
- Lack of consensus among politicians on major issues.
- Perennial issues of terrorism.
- Shortsighted, imprudent and impetuously-designed foreign policy.
• Administrative:
- Spineless bureaucracy.
- Delayed justice.
- Dishonesty, Nepotism, and Red-tapism.
- Flawed transparency and accountability mechanism.
• Economic:
- Vicious circle of poverty.
- Outdated techniques of agricultural farming.
- Unbridled inflation rate.
- Undocumented economy.
- Blind privatization.
• Religious:
- Pathetic role of religious icons for power lust.
- Inculcation of anti-democratic sentiment in the minds of followers and support of dictatorship.
- Use of religious followers as a pressure group.
- Unignorable role of religious parties in promoting sectarianism.
- Inclination towards taqleed rather than Ijtehad.
• Social:
- Marginal and unproductive role of women.
- Class disparities due to feudalism and landlordism.
- Resistance of general masses to adopting new things.
- Uncontrolled population growth.
5. Can we ever become a truly independent nation? Yes.
6. Recommendations for removing the hurdles in becoming a truly independent state:
- Strengthening of democracy by ensuring continuity of credible elections and proper vetting of candidates.
- Devising meticulous, far-sighted and independent foreign policy.
- A complete overhauling of administrative systems.
- Adopting prudent and visionary economic policies.
- Enacting of stringent laws to broaden the tax net.
- Promoting progressive scholars.
- Launching of media campaign to change the mindset of society.
7. Conclusion:

(10) Importance of Free Media

1. Introduction:
2. Media and its types:
- Print Media.
- Electronic Media.
3. Components of freedom of media:
- No censoring of news / programs by the government.
- No imposition of economic restraints.
- No cancellation of permits / Licenses.
- No threats to journalists.
4. Importance of Free Media:
• Importance for political sector:
- Ensures sustenance of democracy.
- Guarantees an environment of accountability.
- Spreads political awareness.
- Assists the Government in decision making.
- Strengthen electoral process.
• Importance for Economic sector:
- Provides government with the information on national and international economic trends.
- Assists investors in economic decision making.
- Highlights mistakes and wrongdoing of government.
• Importance for Social Sector:
- Imparts informal education.
- Disseminates information and knowledge.
- Inculcates etiquettes.
- Upgrades living standards.
- Highlights social evils.
- Reflect true image of nation.
- Indicates violation of human rights.
- Provide cheap source of Entertainment.
5. Role of Media in Pakistan: A case study.
- Lawyer’s movement against Parvez Musharaf.
- Restoration of Judiciary.
- Change of Public opinion with reference to terrorists.
- Privatization of Steel Mill and other units.
- Sustenance of Democracy.
- Emergence of Third political force and 2013 Elections.
- Changing status and role of women.
6. Some negative impacts:
- Revealing of national secretes.
- Promotion of obscenity.
- Deterioration of morality.
- Spread of consumerism.
- Causing of mental unrest.
- Deteriorations of foreign relation of country.
- Damage to the image of nation and state.
7. Causes of Evils of the Media:
8. Recommendations:
• For ensuring independence of Media:
- Enactment of Laws.
- Public awareness campaign.
- Active role of civil society.
- Independent role of judiciary.
- Mature role of media organizations.
• For eradication of evils of Media:
- Enactment of laws and strict implementation.
- Effective role of regulatory authorities.
- Establishment of effective mechanism within media organizations.
- Devising of a consensus-based code of conduct collectively by media organizations.
- Provision of better work facilities to media personnel.
- Promotion of media education as an important field.
- Training of media personnel.
9. Conclusion:

(11) Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Consequences and Recommendation

1. Introduction:
2. Pakistan’s Energy Scenario:
3. Sources of energy procurement in Pakistan:
4. Issues faced by Energy sector:
5. Consequences of energy crisis:
6. Recommendations:
• Short term measures:
- Resolution of circular debt issue.
- Prompt implementation of NEPRA determined tariffs.
- Ensuring recovery of revenue from public sector.
- Crackdown on energy thefts.
- Energy conservation campaign and demand management.
- Use of copper transmission wires for rectifying line losses.
• Medium term measures.
- Development of integrated energy policy.
- Allotment of funds to GENCOs for refurbishment of plants and transmission system.
• Long term measures.
7. Conclusion.

(12) Corruption in Pakistan: Mother of all Evils

1. Introduction:
2. Historical Background:
- Colonial period.
- WW II and Partition huge defense money.
- Nationalization policy.
- Proxy wars.
3. Current Scenario:
- Loss in National exchequer.
- Ranking by transparency international.
- Tax to GDP ratio.
4. Causes:

- Absence of culture of accountability:
- Incompetent Judiciary:
- Highly centralized Economic system:
- Absence of rule of law:
- Punctuated constitutional supremacy:
- High inflation and food prices:
- Meager Salaries of Govt. Servants:
- Capitalist class competition:
- Materialistic approach and evasion of religious and Ethnic values:
- Incompetent Bureaucracy:
- Tax Evasion:
- Culture of writing off loans:
- Poor Governance:
- Non-Disclosure of Information:
- Nepotism and Favoritism:
- Feudalism:
5. Impacts:
- Loss of development by eating up funds in commission.
- Impediment in FDI.
- More foreign aid and loans leading to dependence.
- Election rigging.
- Fake degrees.
- Deteriorated International image:
- Increase in crimes:
- Undermines poverty alleviation:
- It undermines democracy:
- Hinders good governance:
- Hampers Economic growth:
- Violate Human Rights:
- Impedes FDI:
- Enhances operating cost government:
- Scuttles level of Revenue:
- Reduces the resources available for Social programs:
6. Remedies:
- True Leadership:
- Active NAB.
- Strong punishment.
- Anti-bribery courts.
- Free judiciary.
- Free media.
- Imparting Islamic values.
- Ethical counseling through Education:
- Ensuring meritocracy instead of red tapism:
- Increased Salaries and Employment opportunities:
- Punishment:
- Transparency:
- Role of Media:
- Accountability at all levels, no sacred cows:
- Fair use of power and authority.
- Rule of Law in letter and sprit:
- Legislation:
- Renovation and Reformation:

7. Conclusion:

(13) Environmental Pollution

1. Introduction:
- It has destroyed civilizations.
- The Mesopotamia civilization that flourished some eight thousand ago between the rivers of Tigris and Euphrates was destroyed by water and land pollution i.e. water logging, salinity and silt.
- Biggest issue at global level.
2. Kinds of Pollution:
• Atmospheric:
• Water:
• Soil:
• Noise:
3. Impacts:
• Depletion of Ozone layer:
• Acid Rains:
• Green House effect:
• Global warming:
• Damage to natural ecosystem:
• Health hazards:
• Extinction of various species:
4. State of Pollution in Pakistan:
• Industrial:
• Coastal:
• Urban:
• Agricultural:
• Water:
• Air:
• Noise:
5. Causes of Pollution:
• Unplanned Industrialization:
• Incongruous Transport:
• Garbage/Solid Waste:
• Pressure Horns:
• Fertilizers and Pesticides:
• Nuclear waste:
6. International Efforts to curb menace of Pollution:
- Earth Summit 1992.
- Metrological research studies on pollution 1995.
- Kyoto Summit 1997.
- Johannesburg Summit 2002.
- Paris Agreement 2016.
7. National Level Efforts:
- Legislative Measures.
- Participation of people.
- Role of Media.
- Checks and Controls.
- To stop unplanned urbanization.
- Population control.
8. Remedial Measures to curb Pollution:
• Sound/Effective industrial planning:
• Alternative transport/Electric Transport (Use of CNG, LPG):
• Decomposition of nuclear waste:
• Proper Sanitation:
• Alternative energy generation to avoid use of fossil fuels:
• Plantation of Trees:
• Use of NH3/Green house gasses in refrigeration and air-conditioning.
• Awareness Campaigns:
9. Conclusion:

(14) Global/World Economic Recession

1. Introduction:
- Definition of world economy.
- Definition of Recession.
- Background.
- Brief overview of current crisis.
2. Global Economy:
- Trends.
- Dimensions.
- Common financial instruments.
- Key players.
3. Recession Causes:
- Investment by businesses.
- Stock market crashes.
- Increase in oil prices.
- Devaluation of paper money.
- Inflation.
- Housing bubble.
- Slowdown of economic growth.
- Unethical banking practices.
4. Effects of Recession:
- Layoffs.
- Large companies going bankrupt.
- Impact on industrial output.
- Unemployment.
- Widening Rich-Poor gap.
- Nationalization.
- Government intervention.
- Business and export losses.
- Impact on economy.
5. Countermeasures:
6. Conclusion:

(15) Terrorism: The biggest threat to Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. History of Terrorism in Pakistan: An overview.
3. Pakistan faces various forms of Terrorism:
- Ethnic/Sectarian:
- Nationalist/Separatist:
- Jihad/Islamist:

4. Causes:
• Internal Causes:
o Social:
- Unequal distribution of wealth.
- Augmenting Illiteracy:
- Increasing social injustice:
- Lack of social securities.
- Population growth:
- Dissatisfaction:
- Child labor.
- Retaliation.
o Political :
- Nepotism and favoritism.
- Derailment of democracy.
- Corruption.
- Instability.
- Deteriorated law and situation.
- Lack of transparency and accountability.
o Economic:
- Poverty and deprivation.
- Unemployment and inflation.
- Stagnation.
• Religious:
- Sectarianism.
- Religious intolerance.
- Brainwash and misinterpretation of religion.
• External:
- West Global War on terror:
- Sky picot.
- Arab Spring.
- Russian invasion on Afghanistan and 9/11.
- Exploitation:
- Hegemonic designs:
- Meddling into affairs of other states:
- Kashmir and Palestine Issue.
- State sponsored terrorism.

5. Is Terrorism a Great Threat:
- To Democracy:
- Economy.
- To Infrastructure
- To Life.
- To investment.
- To social services.
- To Sovereignty:
- To Economy:
- To Governance:
- To Progress:
- To National Security:
- To National integrity:
- To Political Stability:
- To Fundamental Human rights:

6. Recommendations:
- End of meddling into affairs of other countries.
- End of Stereotypical war on terror.
- Disputes resolved through dialogues.
- Educating masses.
- Role of Media.
- Provision of speedy justice.
- Provision of economic opportunities to masses.
- Restoration of peace and stability.
- Using influence of religious leaders:
- Utilizing Civil Society:
- Employing Media Effectively:
- Revamping Education System:
- Resolving Afghan Issue:
- Ensuring competent Intelligence: Joint Intelligence Directorate:
- Activation of NACTA:
- Alleviating deprivation:
- Provision of Justice:
- Political Will:
- Dealing hardly with Militants:

7. Conclusion:

(16) Women Empowerment would Empower Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Current Scenario of women in Pakistan and its impact on Pakistan:
3. Interplay of women empowerment and prosperity of Pakistan:
4. Economic benefits of women empowerment:
• Increase in potential and diverse workforce:
• Increase in per capita income:
• Broadening of tax base:

5. Social benefits of Women Empowerment:
• Alleviation of Poverty:
• Increase in Literacy rate:
• Alleviation in incidence of domestic violence:
• Population control:

6. Political Benefits of Women Empowerment:
• Vote consciousness:
• Increase in national suffrage:
• Healthy political process:
• Legislation of women related laws:
• Improved Image of Pakistan:
7. Conclusion:

(17) Need of Good Governance in Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Essentials of Good Governance:
• Political Stability:
• Constitutional supremacy:
• Effective implementation of law:
• Effective Administrative hierarchy:
• Vibrant foreign policy:
• Social justice: distribution of resources.
• Transparency:
• Public participation in decision making:
• Uniform education system:
• Freedom of Media:

3. Status of Governance in Pakistan:
• Political instability:
• Leadership vacuum.
• Lack of accountability:
• Crippled economy:
• Deteriorated law and order situation:
• Incapable laws enforcement agencies:
• Social insecurity:

4. Suggestions:
• Effective democratic system:
• Rule of Law:
• Effective political, administrative and economic system:
• Investment friendly environment:
• Education for all:
• Public participation in decision making:
5. Conclusion:

(18) Pakistan Rich in Natural Resources but Poor in Their Management

1. Introduction:
2. Natural resources and their management:
3. Richness/Abundance of natural resources in Pakistan:
4. Pakistan’s natural resources and their management:
• Energy Resources
- Non-renewable energy resources:
o Oil and gas reserves:
o Coal Reserves:
- Renewable energy resources:
o Wind Power:
o Solar Power:
o Hydro power:
• Agricultural Resources:
- Irrigation Network:
- Fertile Land:
- Variety of Crops:
- Animal Husbandry:
- Fishing:
• Mineral Resources:
- Copper and gold resources:
- Salt mines and other mineral:
• Human Resources:
- Sixth largest population in world:
- Youth comprising major chunk:
5. Factors leading to poor management:
• Poor governance:
• Political rivalry:
• Lack of Planning and vision:
• Inconsistent and flawed policies:
• Bureaucratic bottleneck and corruption:
• Worsening law and order situation:
6. Implications of mismanagement of natural resources:
7. Way forward:
8. Conclusion:

(19) Liberal Education
1. Introduction:
2. Importance:
3. Spheres of Liberal Education:
4. Objectives:
• To produce Informed Citizens:
• To develop creative thinking:
• To improve skills and competitiveness:
• To inculcate Communication skills:
5. Present Style of education in Pakistan:
6. Prerequisites for liberal education:
7. Advantages of liberal Education:
• Economic Development:
• Employment opportunities:
• Interdependent and stable society:
• Peace and harmony in society:
8. Conclusion:

(20) Disaster Management in Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Disaster Management:
3. Phases of Disaster Management:
• Mitigation:
• Preparedness:
• Response:
• Recovery:
4. History of Disasters in Pakistan:
5. Structure of Disaster Management in Pakistan:
6. Role of NDMA:
7. Abysmal state of Disaster preparedness and management in Pakistan:
8. Impacts of weak Disaster Management:
• Food Crisis:
• Health Hazards:
• Ravaged infrastructure:
• Unemployment and Economic loss:
• Militancy and crime:
• Political upset:
9. Measures to Improve DMS:
10. Conclusion:

(21) Global Warming

1. Introduction:
2. What is Global Warming:
3. Evidences of Global Warming:
• Temperature:
• Precipitation:
• Rise in sea level:
• Ice melting and floods:
4. Cause of Global warming:
• Industrialization:
• Transport:
• Combustion for cooking and heat:
• Deforestation:
• Air condition and Refrigerators:
5. Causes of Global Warming:
6. Sources of Emission:
7. Impacts of Global Warming:
• Extreme weather conditions:
• Affected marginalized communities:
• Coastal areas:
• Frequent and strong storms and floods:
• Health problems:
• Ecosystem destruction:
• Agriculture loss:
• Damages to life:
• Impact on economy:
• Impact on animals:
• Melting of glaciers:
8. Strategies to mitigate global warming:
• Use of renewable energy resources:
• Plantation and forestation:
• Energy efficient appliances:
• Recycling:
• Energy conservation and efficiency:
• Individual efforts:
• Reduction of combustion of fossil fuels:
• Family planning to reduce population growth:
9. Conclusion:

(22) Perils of Muslim Union

1. Introduction:
- Muslim population comprising 2/3rd of world’s total population:
- Enormous potential—Muslim world lag behind in all spheres of life.
- Thesis statement leading to conclusion.
2. Overview of economic potential of the Muslim union:
- World’s largest oil reserves.
- Arabian peninsula enjoys a significant strategic position in the world
- Strait of Hormuz—60% of world’s oil route.
- Economic growth rate in SA, UAE and Kuwait.
- OIC—a potential organization.
3. Perils of Muslim Ummah:
• Economic Causes:
- Lack of Economic cooperation:
- Diversified economic interests:
- Lack of Economic Cohesion and Unity:
• Political Causes:
- Absence of democracy—Monarchial forms of Government:
• Technological and Educational backwardness:
- Lowest literacy rate:
- Lack of scientific research and education:
- Inability to cope with the changing global trends:
• Cultural Causes:
- Islam versus the west:
- Islam perceived as threat to modernization:
• Terrorism:
- Inefficiency of organization since last three decades:
- Annual meetings without practical resolutions:
• OIC—A dead organization:

4. Current situation and implication of the above mentioned factors:
- Muslim Ummah caught up in vicious cycle of terrorism, economic and political crisis:
- Muslim Ummah targeted by west in the name of Islam.
- Inability to resolve the core issues of Muslim world like:
I. Kosovo, Kashmir, Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan.
II. Economic backwardness.
III. Poverty, Overpopulation and high crime rate.
IV. Low GDP and FDI.
V. Meager contribution in world trade.
VI. Least infrastructure development
VII. Educational backwardness.
5. Suggestions:
• Economic Cooperation:
- Open the barriers of trade.
- Enhance exports.
- Make use of oil reserves to the benefit of whole Muslim Ummah.
- Easy visa policies.
• Muslim world—to raise voice on international forums for conflict resolution:
- Kashmir issue to be taken on UN Forum.
- Efforts for getting permanent seat on UNSC.
- Unity to stop west war against Islam.
• Muslim Integration—Need of the hour:
- Muslim unity—only solution of problems
- Muslim Monetary fund to be established.
- Aid to poor Muslim countries.
- Rehabilitation fund to be established for Disasters.
• OIC—to be made a vibrant organization:
- Changes in structures of the organization.
- Muslim union on the pattern of EU should be formed.
- Frequent meetings should be held with persistence political will.
- Economic assistance and guidance to poor countries.
6. Conclusion:

(23) World Order: From Unipolar to Multipolar

1. Introduction:
2. Brief History of world order:
3. US—Unipolar status:
4. Determinants of World order:
• Economic strength:
• Military Power:
• International Political clout:
• Ideological appeal:
5. The paradigm shift:
6. Catalyst Factors:
• Energy resources:
• Iraq war:
• Financial crisis:
• Globalization:
7. Future Scenario—Multipolar world:
8. Conclusion:

(24) Global Zero: A World without Nuclear Weapons.

1. Introduction:
2. Brief history of nuclear weapons:
3. Perils of Nuclear weapons:
4. Need to eliminate nuclear weapons:
5. Global zero initiative:
6. Is this goal achievable:
• Historical support:
• Political will:
• Strong public support:
• New leadership:
7. How to achieve it:
• Ratification of NPT/CTBT:
• Reduction by US and Russia:
• Elimination by all nuclear states:
• Follow up: Control mechanism:
8. Creation of international nuclear fuel-bank:
9. Advantages of Global zero:
10. Conclusion:

(25) Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Essentials of Good Governance:
- Promotion of national cohesion:
- National integration:
- Institutional supremacy:
- Independent Judiciary:
- Constitutional supremacy:
- Rule of Law:
- Political stability:
- Educational Opportunities:
- Socio-Economic Development:
- Equal distribution of resources:
- Welfare state with provision of social securities:
- Strong writ of government on all fronts:
3. Situation of Governance in Pakistan:
- Forces of disintegration stronger than cohesion.
- Weak writ of the government.
- No rule of law.
- Political instability.
- Interprovincial conflicts.
- Unequal distribution of resources.
- Pakistan presenting a picture of extreme bad governance on all fronts.
4. Causes of bad governance:
• Political:
- Parliament—a toothless tiger.
- Political instability due to constant military intervention.
- Issue of provincialism on revenue, resources and demand of provincial autonomy.
• Administrative:
- Bureaucratic hold on all institutions.
- Political interference on bureaucracy.
- Corruption—Mother of all evils.
- Absence of culture of accountability.
- Mismanagement of resources.
- Pakistan a soft state because of inability of implementation of policies due to lack of consensus.
• Economic:
- Fragile economy—FDI shrinking on account of terrorism and political instability.
- Crisis of energy, food, water.
• Social:
- Poverty.
- Population growth.
- Illiteracy.
5. Remedies:
- True, Capable leadership.
- Strong Anti-corruption campaign.
- Strict accountability.
- Socio-Economic Development.
- More funds for education.
- Efforts for population control.
- Poverty alleviation.
- Employment opportunities.
- Equal distribution of resources.
- Ensuring freedom of press.
6. Conclusion:

(26) Industrial Sector

1. Introduction:
2. Historical perspective:
3. Present Scenario:
4. Industrial Problems:
- Narrow export base.
- Import oriented industries.
- Consumption oriented society.
- Low quality of labor.
- Low quality of products.
- Lack of new techniques and machinery.
- Political unrest.
- Terrorism and extremism.
- Devaluation and inflation tendencies
- Lack of guidance.
- Lack of Research.
- Low capital.
- Inadequate infrastructure.
- Power crisis.
5. Measures for betterment of Industrial sector:
- Increased exports.
- Produce import substitutions.
- Improve quality of product.
- Improve quality of labor.
- Establish industrial consultancy firms.
- Increase capital goods.
- Establish basic infrastructure for industry.
- Realistic and up to date data and statistics to the sector.
6. Privatization:
- Negative points of privatization of many industries.
- Abnormal haste—in disposing off units.
- Weak assessment criteria.
- Nepotism.
- Manipulation.
- Accumulation of wealth.
- Contradictory disinvestment.
- Absence of regulatory mechanism.
7. Recommendation:
- Logistics.
- Productivity.
- Consensus management.
- Literacy.
- Utilization of proceeds of assets.
- Employment.
- Economic Development.
- Social Justice.
8. Conclusion:

(27) Ideology of Pakistan

1. Introduction:
- Pakistan came into existence when the first Muslim put his feet on the soil of the subcontinent (Jinnah)
- Meaning and Definition.
2. How it Emerges:
- Process, not in a day.
- Nor be dictated neither promulgated.
- Grows among dejected, annoyed and dissatisfied groups.
- When people feel that they are mistreated and existing ideology does not satisfy them any more.
3. Significance:
- It is need of nation, state or religion.
- It sets the goals and direction of individual, nation or world at large.
4. Characteristics of Ideology:
- Not stagnant, dynamic.
- Based on sources.
- Roots in fanatic slogans.
- May depend on political theories.
- May emanate some historical facts.
5. Islamic Ideology:
- Name of principles and norms, which guide Muslims community based upon:
- Sovereignty of Allah, Concept of Toheed and Finality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
6. Ideology of Pakistan:
7. The concept of two nations:
8. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Two Nation Theory:
9. Allama Iqbal and Two Nation Theory:
10. Quid e Azam and Two Nation Theory:
11. Demands of Pakistan Ideology:
12. Conclusion:

(28) Foreign Policy of Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Objectives:
- Preservation of political independence and nationality integrity.
- Defense—Maintenance of powerful and sophisticated defense.
- Muslim unity—strengthening brotherly relations with Muslim countries.
- Economic development.
- Emancipation—from colonialism, imperialism and apartheid policy.
- Maintenance of International peace and security.
3. Foreign Policy Principles:
- Respect for territorial integrity.
- Political independence.
- Sovereignty of country.
- Non-Interference into affairs of other countries.
- Non-Aggression—peaceful resolution of disputes.
- Friendship to all malice to none.
- Peaceful coexistence.
4. Historical background of Pakistan FP:
- Era of Neutrality (1947-53).
- Era of Alliances (1954-62).
- Era of Bilateralism (1962-69).
- Era of NAM (1969-81).
- Era of revival of Policy (1981-90).
- Era of Regionalism (1990-9/11)
- FP After 9/11.
5. Policy debate in Pakistan:
- All these institution and factors are mainly responsible for making foreign Policy of Pakistan.
- President, PM, COAS, FO, Intelligence agencies, Public pressure.
6. School of thought in Pakistan:
- Pro-US completely in favor of serving US interests.
- Semi Pro-US Balance approach.
- Muslim school of thought—Against US.
7. Present Policy:

8. Threats:

- Bad International image.
- Nuclear proliferation.
- Base of Terrorism.
- National integration at stake.
- Independence at stake.
- China-Pak relations many threats.
- Damaged image among Muslim countries.
9. Suggestions:
- China-Pak relations to be strengthened.
- Russia should be placed in friend list.
- Relations with Muslim countries should be improved.
10. Conclusion:

(29) Agriculture Sector of Pakistan

1. Introduction:
- Importance of Agriculture sector in economy.
- Greatest wealth of Pakistan vast plains.
- Different crops.
2. Overview of Agriculture sector of Pakistan:
- Contribution to DGP 30%.
- Employment 55%.
- Exports 70%.
- Livelihood for 70% of rural population.
- Despite vast plains and world’s best irrigation system, country is not self sufficient in agricultural commodities.
3. Problems of Agriculture sector:
• Financial:
- Inadequate funds allocation.
- Pricing policy.
- Rural credit.
• Resource development:
- Water problem.
- Floods.
- Salinity.
- Soil erosion.
• Agricultural inputs:
- Fertilizers.
- Seeds.
- Plant protection.
• Mechanization Problem:
- Sowing and harvesting.
- High cost of technology.
• Social Problems:
- Illiteracy.
- Health.
- Transport.
- Exploitation by intermediaries.
- Few educational institutes.
- Lack of research.
- Population growth.
4. Recommendations:
- Educational facilities.
- Land reforms.
- Construction of dams.
- Agricultural research.
- Protect water lagging and salinity.
- Lining of canals.
- Agri technology.
- Plant protection.
- Credit and loans facilities.
- Improved inputs.
- Reduce population pressure.
- Media campaigns.
5. Prospects of Agriculture sector:
6. Conclusion:

(30) Education

1. Introduction:
2. Importance:
• Personal level:
• Community level:
• National level:
3. Education system of Pakistan:
4. Levels of Education:
- Primary.
- Elementary.
- Secondary and Higher Secondary.
- Higher education.
- Postproduction.
- Technical and vocatitional.
5. Overview of Education in Pakistan:
- Literacy rate and female education.
- Budget allocation.
6. Education problems:
- Low quality.
- Lack of uniform education.
- Lack of facilities at schools.
- Poor infrastructure.
- Recruitment on political basis.
- Economic cost of education and child labor.
- Lack of community participation.
- Student teacher ratio.
- Increased cost of higher education.
- Crippled examination system.
- Non-professional attitude of teachers.
- Brain drain.
- Low budget allocation:
- Urban/Rural divide:
7. Remedies:
- Decentralization of decision making.
- Greater autonomy of schools.
- Coordination of school systems.
- Remove political interference.
- Enhance information and research base.
- Free Education.
- Scholarships.
- Effective examination systems.
- Assurance of merit.
- Curriculum reforms.
- Practical and activity based teaching.
8. Reform in Education Sector:
- Education for all EFA.
- Adult literacy.
- Free and compulsory education.
- Technical education.
- Teacher training programs.
- Abandon physical punishment.
- Quality assurance.
- AV Aids.
- Educational research.
- Classroom management.
- Uniform education system.
9. Conclusion:
- Education is a social instrument through which man can guide his destiny and shape his future.
- An unenlightened mind is nothing but a sorry lamp to light the steps of any man or woman.

(31) Energy Crisis

1. Introduction:
2. Forms of Energy:
• Kinetic Energy:
- Sound.
- Wind.
- Mechanical.
- Electrical.
- Thermal,
- Light, Solar.
• Potential Energy:
- Gravitational.
- Hydal.
- Nuclear.
- Chemical.
3. Types of Energy shortage:
• Supply shortage:
• Capacity Shortage:
4. Sector wise energy consumption:
- Household 43%.
- Industries 30%.
- Agri 13%.
- Government 7%
- Commercial 5%
- Street lights 0.7%
5. Energy generation and demand (Figures June 2009)
• Energy Demand 25,000mw.
• Energy Supply 19,505mw.
• Gap: 3,000mw average, 4000-6000 in peak season.
• Duration of Load shedding:
6. Causes of Energy crisis:
- No policy and planning.
- Underutilization of installed capacity.
- Public negligence and wastage.
- No dams and proper water management.
- Lack of Political will.
- Dependence on thermal plants.
- Maladministration of previous regimes:
- Under utilization of existing resources:
- Circular Debt:
- Line losses in transmission and distribution:
- Wastage by industries:
- Large scale theft of electricity:
- Corruption:
- Lack of political will:
- Shortage of funds:
- Overdependence on imported energy:
- Population growth.
- No use of alternative energy sources.
7. Effects of Energy crisis:
• Economic:
- Effect on industry sector.
- Effect on agriculture sector.
- Capital flight to other countries.
- Low FDI.
- Inflation.
- Poverty.
- Stagnant economy.
- Low export and increased imports.
• Social:
- Public turmoil.
- Anti-government sentiments.
- Affecting education and students.
- Every sphere of life is affected.
- Psychological impact on minds
• Political:
- Decreased credibility of politicians.
- Derailment of democracy.

8. Strategies to overcome the energy crisis:
- Changing office time:
- Energy savers:
- Renewable sources:
- Coal and Hydro power plants:
- Solve circular debt issue
- Power conservation and generation projects:
- Laodshedding in transparent manner:
- To avoid tariffs:
- Replacement of inefficient plants:
- Minimize line losses:
• Construction of new dams:
- Kalabagh Dam 3600mw capacity.
- Bhasa Dam 4500mw.
- Nelum-Jehlum 1960mw.
- Tarbela Dam 960mw.
- Suki-Kinari Dam 850mw.
- Munda Dam 700mw.
• Institutional and administrative improvement:
- Effective policy.
- WAPDA, PEPCO, KE prepare new projects.
- Technical competence and expertise.
• Utilization of largest deposits of coal:
- Thar coals deposits.
• Regional cooperation:
- Import from Tajikistan.
• Renewable energy sources availed:
- Solar, wind, hydal, tidal, geothermal etc.
- Research in concerned field.
• Public awareness:
- Use of savers.
- Avoid wastage.
• Dynamic and active leadership and political will:
9. Conclusion:

(32) Good Governance

1. Introduction:
2. Actors of Good Governance:
- Government:
- Influential landlords:
- Associations of peasants farmers:
- NGOs:
- Religious Leaders:
- Political parties:
- Opposition:
- Bureaucracy:
- Military:
- Media:
3. State of Governance in Pakistan:
- Institutional imbalance:
- Interprovincial tussle:
- Lack of provision of justice:
- Deteriorated law and order:
- Corruption:
- Intolerance:
- Population growth:
- Poverty, Inflation and Unemployment:
- Water and energy crisis:
- Political instability:
- Demonstrations and sit-ins:
- Tax evasions:
- Electricity theft:
- Poor knowledge:
- Mounting external debt:
4. Causes of Bad Governance:
- Mismanagement:
- Corruption:
- Institutional decay:
- Derailment of Democracy:
- Political elites:
- Lack of accountability:
- Lack of civic awareness:
- Lack of political will:
5. Characteristics of Good Governance:
- Sound political system:
- Equal Opportunities and merit system:
- Equal distribution of resources:
- Strong writ of government on all fronts.
- National Integration:
- Institutional supremacy:
- Dynamic Leadership:
- Political stability:
- Rule of Law:
- Social Justice:
- Equal Participation:
- Eradication of Corruption:
- Democratic government:
- Freedom of Expression:
- Transparency:
- Responsiveness:
- Consensus:
- Inclusiveness:
- Efficiency:
- Decentralization/Devolution:
6. Recommendations:
- Institutional supremacy:
- Inter-provincial cooperation:
- Accountability:
- Alleviation of corruption:
- Policy reforms.
- Social securities:
- Rule of Law:
- Free media:
- Speedy justice:
- Anti-corruption measures.
7. Fruits of Good Governance:
- Economic development:
- Welfare state:
- National Integration:
- Challenges faced with letter and spirit:
8. Conclusion:

(33) Military Operations & Its Impacts

1. Introduction:
2. Causes of Operations:
• To eliminate terrorism:
• To restore peace:
3. Importance of Operations:
• To alloy with developed nations:
• To build goodwill with foreign countries:
• To Clear the negative elements from society:
• To protect the religion:
4. Negative Impacts of Operations:
• IDPs problem:
• Civil unrest:
• Retaliation:
• Loss of Property and lives:
• Decline in foreign exchange:
• Disinvestment:
• Emerge of new terrorists:
5. Positive Impacts of Operations:
• Peace and stability:
• Writ of state:
• Positive image:
6. Conclusion:

(34) Third Gender and Their Rights

1. Introduction:
- What is third gender?
- Civil rights.
2. Third gender and their abilities:
- A creature of God.
- Sexually impaired not physically.
- Mental abilities as par normal human.
3. Rights of normal humans and third gender:
- Their rights and implementation.
- No right to vote.
- Irrational behavior toward them.
4. Islam and rights of third gender:
- Islam despised social division.
- Equal rights for them.
5. Their rights and treatment in western society:
- No apt rights for them.
- Treated as sex slaves.
6. India and third gender:

7. Third gender and Pakistan’s society:
- No Respect.
- Treated as sex slaves and puppet.
- They are also reluctant to become part of society.
- No jobs.
8. Constitution and rights of third gender:
- Meager provisions.
- Lethargic implementation.
9. What need to do:
- Treat them as humans.
- Create awareness in society.
- Promote education among them.
- Provide respectful job.
- Voting rights.
- Integrate them in to mainstream of society.
- Legitimize their rights.
10. Conclusion:

(35) Is Military Rule better than Democracy

1. Introduction;
2. Democracy and its effects:
3. Democracy in the west:
4. Islamic concept of democracy:
- Equity and equality as corner stone.
- Muslim democratic rules in different parts of world.
5. Military rule its causes and effects:
- Causes of military rule.
- Its effects on society.
- Analysis of military rule in different parts of world.
6. Democracy vs. dictatorship in Pakistan:
- Democratic history of Pakistan.
- Dictatorship and its impacts.
7. Current scenario:
• Democracy failed in Pakistan because:
- Military interventions.
- Greedy politicians.
- Corruption.
8. How to become true democratic country:
- Democratic values should flourish.
- Discourage feudalism.
- Intra party elections
9. Conclusion:

(36) Economic Challenges faced by Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. Brief History about economy of Pakistan:
3. Challenges faced by Pakistan:
- Inflation.
- Low Tax to GDP ratio.
- Devaluation of money.
- Trade deficit and balance of payment issue.
- Poverty, unemployment.
- Poor health and educational facilities.
- Poor law and order.
- Political instability.
- Immature media.
- External debt, caught in foreign cloches.
- Mismanagement and underutilization of natural resources.
- Energy crisis.
- Low FDI.
- Incompetent judiciary.
- Corruption.
- Low capital formation.
- Low savings.
- Population pressure.
- No technology.
- Agrarian economy.
- No protection of industrial sector.
- Leadership gap.
- Inconsistent policies.
- Untrained Labor force.
4. Causes of economic turmoil:
- Mismanagement.
- Terrorism.
- Leadership gap.
- Governance issue.
- External debt.
- Civil unrest.
- Public issues unresolved.
- Poor law and order situation.
- No research and development.
- Population pressure.
- Less funds for education.
- Lack of capital goods.
- Trade deficit.
5. Remedial measures:
- Exploration of new markets.
- Industrialization.
- Tight monetary policy.
- Investor’s friendly policies.
- Regional peace.
- Improved law and order.
- Good governance:
- Energy.
6. Conclusion:

(37) Promotion of Tax culture in Pakistan

1. Introduction:
2. An overview of current tax regime in Pakistan:
- Dependence on sales, income and custom tax.
- Usefulness of current tax system and its inherent inefficiencies.
- Negative public attitude.
- Need for promotion of tax culture in the country and its significance.
3. Prospects:
- Restructuring FBR.
- Broadening tax base.
- Automation of FBR to facilitate stakeholders.
- Moving to direct tax from indirect.
- Incentive based tax system.
- Public Awareness campaign.

4. Challenges:
- Red-Tapism:
- Rampant Corruption:
- Complex tax code:
- Tax illiteracy:
- Meddled Center-Provincial tax system:
- Large undocumented economy:
- Public-Government Mistrust:

5. Conclusion:

(38) I Disapprove What You Say but I defend to death Your Right to Say

8. Introduction:
9. I disapprove what you say:
- Difference of opinion is the beauty of any society.
- Why difference of opinion should be protected.
10. But I would defend to death your right to say:
- Defining freedom of speech.
- Importance of freedom of speech.
- Freedom speech and fundamental rights.
- Freedom of speech as incorporated into the constitutions.
- Religious perspectives on freedom of speech.
- Freedom of speech and democracy.
- Limitations of freedom of speech.
11. Challenges and obstacles to freedom of speech:
- Religious extremism.
- Populist tendencies.
- Growing intolerance.
12. Measures to ensure right of freedom of speech:
13. Conclusion:

(39) Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism

1. Introduction:
2. Terrorism:
3. Means to combat terrorism:
- Operation.
- Dialogue.
1. Why dialogue has been necessary:
- Save massive killing.
- To avoid retaliation.
- Decrease animosity.
- Ideology be changed, not with forces.
1. How Dialogue is the best course:
- Saves life.
- Economic stability.
- Controlled situation.
- View points of every one taken into the consideration.
- Peaceful, co-effective and sustainable.
1. Recommendations for effective dialogue process:
- Root cause is to be dealt.
- All stockholders be taken in confidence.
- National interests on the top.
- Public support.
- Tolerant, cooperative and optimistic attitude.
2. Conclusion:

The situation of human rights in Pakistan is complex as a result of the country's diversity, large population, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, Islamic republic as well as a democracy with a mixture of both Islamic and secular laws. The Constitution of Pakistan provides for fundamental rights, which include freedom of speech, freedom of thought, freedom of information, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and the (conditional) right to bear arms. The Clauses also provide for an independent Supreme Court, separation of executive and judiciary, an independent judiciary, independent Human Rights commission and freedom of movement within the country and abroad. However it is debatable how much these clauses are respected in practice.

Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2ndPrime Minister of Pakistan stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be".[1] However, this in stark contradiction to what Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, stated in an address to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, "You will find that in course of time Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as the citizens of the State."[2] Though the Constitution includes adequate accommodation for Pakistan’s religious minorities, in practice non-Sunni Muslims tend to face religious discrimination in both the public and private spheres (for example – non Muslims cannot hold any of the top positions in the country's government). In response to rising sectarian and religious violence, the Pakistani government has unveiled several high-profile efforts to reduce tension and support religious pluralism, giving new authority to the National Commission for Minorities and creating a Minister for Minority Affairs post. Nonetheless, religious violence and intimidation, as well as periodic charges of blasphemy, have occurred.[3][4] Attacks against Shia Muslims, who make up between 5–20%[5][6] of Pakistani Muslims, have also been carried out by terrorist organizations such as the TTP and LeJ.[7][8] However, in recent years, the Pakistani military and law enforcement agencies have conducted vast and extensive operations against these terrorist organizations which has resulted in a dramatic decrease in violence against minorities and restoration of relative peace. [9][10] Furthermore, Pakistani courts have taken action against the misuse of blasphemy laws,in one case sentencing multiple people to life in prison and death for starting a blasphemy mob.[11] Pakistani lawmakers have also taken action against the misuse of blasphemy laws, putting forward amendments that seek to equate punishments for a false accusation of blasphemy to the punishment for actually committing blasphemy.[12]

Although Pakistan was created to uphold the principles of democracy, military coups in Pakistan are commonplace, and for most of its history after independence has been ruled by military dictators who declare themselves president. The Pakistani general election, 2013 were the first elections in the country where there was a constitutional transfer of power from one civilian government to another.[8]Elections in Pakistan although being partially free, are rife with irregularities including but not limited to vote rigging, use of threats and coercion, discrimination between Muslim and non-Muslim and many other violations.[8][13][14] Additionally the Government of Pakistan has itself admitted on several occasions that it has absolutely no control over the Military of Pakistan and related security agencies.[15][16]

Domestic violence is an important social issue in Pakistan, specially because of allegations that the Pakistani government has not done enough to stem the problem from the country. An estimated 5000 women are killed per year from domestic violence, with thousands of others maimed or disabled.[17] The majority of victims of violence used to have no legal recourse but this was fixed recently when multiple provincial parliaments passed thorough and strict laws against domestic violence[18][19][20].

In general Freedom of the press is allowed but any reports critical of the government policy or critical of the military is censored. Journalists face widespread threats and violence making Pakistan one of the worst countries to be a journalist in, with 61 being killed since September 2001 and at least 6 murdered in 2013 alone.[21][22] Tv stations and news papers are routinely shut down for publishing any reports critical of the government or the military.[23][24][25]

In May 2012, President Asif Ali Zardari signed the National Commission for Human Rights Bill 2012 for the promotion of the protection of human rights in the country.[26] However, it remains to be seen if any positive effects will be derived from this.

Political Freedom in Pakistan[edit]

Although Pakistan was created to uphold the principles of democracy, its history is rife with Military coups in Pakistan, and for most of its history after independence has been ruled by military dictators who declare themselves president. The Pakistani general election, 2013 were the first elections in the country where there was a constitutional transfer of power from one civilian government to another.[8] The elections were marred by terrorist attacks that killed hundreds and wounded more than 500 and widespread rigging of polls, the highest in the country's recorded history.[27]

Religious minorities were prevented from voting for Muslim candidates after Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization and non-Muslims are restricted in the posts they may contest for, with several of the higher posts being unavailable to them. Although some of these laws were later repealed, religious minorities still continue to face several restrictions in politics.[3]

Although slow but steady progress has been made towards return to democracy in the last decade, many Pakistanis and foreign observers see the military still firmly entrenched in politics with the government playing second fiddle to the military. The government is widely seen as having no control over the armed forces and the Inter-Services Intelligence[28][29]

Most of Pakistan's laws are secular in nature, some of which were inherited from the United Kingdom's colonial rule of modern-day Pakistan before 1947. However, in practice, Sharia Law takes precedence over Pakistani law. The constitution of Pakistan has been changed several times in its short history, with Islamization being the driving factor. Although the government has enacted a few measures to counter any problems, abuses remain. Furthermore, courts suffer from lack of funds, outside intervention, and deep case backlogs that lead to long trial delays and lengthy pretrial detentions. Many observers inside and outside Pakistan contend that Pakistan’s legal code is largely concerned with crime, national security, and domestic tranquility and less with the protection of individual rights.

In 2010, Foreign Policy ranked Pakistan as number ten on its Failed States Index, placing it in the "critical" category with such other failed or failing states as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia.[16] Pakistan consistently figures near the top of the list of failed states year after year[30]

In September 2015, a Pakistani court has imposed ban on speeches of Mr. Altaf Hussain, chief of MQM which is the 4th largest political party of Pakistan and represents mainly Mohajir community. The court directed the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (Pemra) and Additional Attorney-General Naseer Ahmed Bhutta to implement a ban on the broadcast of images and speeches of Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) chief Altaf Hussain across all electronic and print media till further orders.

Freedom of the press in Pakistan[edit]

See also: Media of Pakistan, Censorship in Pakistan, and Internet censorship in Pakistan

In general freedom of the press is allowed but any reports critical of the government policy or critical of the military are censored. Journalists face widespread threats and violence, making Pakistan one of the worst countries to be a journalist in, with 61 being killed since September 2001 and at least 6 murdered in 2013 alone.[21]

Freedom House rated Pakistan as "Not Free" in its report of 2013 and gave it a score of 64 (on a scale of 0–100, with 0 being most free and 100 being least free). The report brought to light widespread intimidation of journalists by various government, military and security agencies with killings allegedly being carried out by the Inter-Services Intelligence.[31]Reporters without borders has ranked Pakistan number 158 out of 180 countries listed in its Press Freedom Index of 2014.[22]

In 2013 veteran journalist Hamid Mir, a recipient of the Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Pakistan's second-highest civil award, was shot at by unidentified assailants wounding him with bullets thrice. He alleged that the Inter-Services Intelligence was behind the attack. His TV channel Geo Tv was shut down by the government for 15 days for airing reports that the ISI may have carried out the attacks.[24][32][33][34]

Websites such as YouTube and many others were in the past blocked by the government for violating blasphemy laws. Websites which are deemed to criticize the government or the military, websites which expose human rights violations of minorities, and websites which are perceived as blasphemous are all regularly blocked.[31]

Provincial inequality[edit]

Main articles: Human rights violations in Balochistan and Human rights in Sindh

Miscarriage of Justice[edit]

See also: Balochistan conflict

Security forces routinely violate the human rights in the course of counter terrorism operations in Balochistan and elsewhere. Suspects are frequently detained without charge and or convicted without a fair trial. Thousands of people rounded up as suspected terrorists continue to languish in illegal military detention without being produced in court or being prosecuted. The army continues to deny independent monitors, lawyers, relatives or humanitarian agencies access to the prisoners.[8]

The 1997 Anti-Terrorism Act, which established Anti Terrorism Court, and subsequent anti-terrorist legislation, has arisen concerns about protection of fundamental rights.

Muslim groups have persecuted non-Muslims and used some laws as the legal basis for doing so. The Blasphemy law, for example, allows life imprisonment or the death penalty for contravening Islamic principles, but legislation was passed in October 2004 to attempt to counter misuse of the law.

Provisions of the Islamic Qisas and Diyat laws allow the murder victim's nearest relative or Wali (ولي) (legal guardian) to, if the court approves, take the life of the killer or to agree to financial compensation paid to the heirs of the victim.[35]

Main article: Missing persons (Pakistan)

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(December 2010)

Pakistan's military intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and the law enforcement have been accused of arresting and kidnapping political leaders who have demanded more autonomy or freedom from Pakistan. They have also been accused of arresting student activists and teachers protesting the exploitation of Pakistani government. Many human-rights activists in Pakistan have protested against force disappearances and kidnappings.[36]

Violence against Women[edit]

See also: Domestic violence in Pakistan, Rape in Pakistan, and Honour killing in Pakistan

Domestic violence in Pakistan is an endemic social problem. According to a study carried out in 2009 by Human Rights Watch, it is estimated that between 70 and 90 percent of women and girls in Pakistan have suffered some form of abuse.[37] An estimated 5000 women are killed per year from domestic violence, with thousands of others maimed or disabled.[17] The majority of victims of violence have no legal recourse. Law enforcement authorities do not view domestic violence as a crime and usually refuse to register any cases brought to them. Given the very few women's shelters in the country, victims have limited ability to escape from violent situations.[17]

Human Rights Watch said in its report released in 2014 that "Violence against women and girls – including rape, Honor killings, Acid attacks, Domestic violence and Forced marriage all remain serious problems in Pakistan. Despite high levels of domestic violence, the parliament has failed to enact laws to prevent it and protect women."[8]

Rape in Pakistan came to international attention after the politically sanctioned rape of Mukhtaran Bibi.[38][39] The group War Against Rape (WAR) has documented the severity of rape in Pakistan, and the police indifference to it.[40] According to Women's Studies professor Shahla Haeri, rape in Pakistan is "often institutionalized and has the tacit and at times the explicit approval of the state".[41] According to a study carried out by Human Rights Watch there is a rape once every two hours[37] and a gang rape every hour.[42][43] According to lawyer Asma Jahangir, who is a co-founder of the women's rights group Women's Action Forum, up to seventy-two percent of women in custody in Pakistan are physically or sexually abused.[44]

There have been several thousand "honor" killings in Pakistan in the past decade, with hundreds reported in 2013.[8] An Amnesty International report noted "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators."[45] Honour killings are supposed to be prosecuted as ordinary murder, but in practice, police and prosecutors often ignore it.[46]

Women's eNews reported 4,000 women attacked by Bride burning in Islamabad's surroundings over an eight-year period and that the average age range of victims is between 18 and 35 with an estimated 30 percent being pregnant at the time death.[47]Shahnaz Bukhari has said of such attacks

Either Pakistan is home to possessed stoves which burn only young housewives, and are particularly fond of genitalia, or looking at the frequency with which these incidences occur there is a grim pattern that these women are victims of deliberate murder[47]

According to the Progressive Women's Association such attacks are a growing problem and in 1994 on International Women's Day announced that various NGO's would join to raise awareness of the issue.[48]

Notable attacks against women[edit]

  • On 9 October 2012, the Pakistani Taliban claimed responsibility for attempting to assassinate 15-year-old Malala Yousafzai. They vowed to continue to target her for promoting education for women and girls. In response, a new law was signed by the President on 20 December, guaranteeing free and compulsory education to boys and girls between the ages of five and 16.
  • On 4 July 2012, women’s human rights activist Fareeda Kokikhel Afridi was killed in a drive-by shooting as she left her home in Peshawar for work in the Khyber Tribal Agency. Local civil society groups said she had been targeted for promoting the human rights of women. The authorities failed to bring the perpetrators to justice.[49]
  • In 2007, Kainat Soomro a 13-year-old was kidnapped at gunpoint and gang raped. Her family faced widespread condemnation for refusing to "honor" kill their daughter and faced several attacks which resulted in the death of her brother. Her rapists were all acquitted and she was put under trial for premarital sex which is a crime under Islamic law.[50][51]
  • On June 2002, Mukhtaran Bibi was gang raped on the orders of a tribal council and paraded naked in front of a cheering crowd of 300 people. She did not commit suicide, as is customary in gang rape incidents in Pakistan, but instead attempted to seek justice. After nearly a decade after the incident 5 of the 6 accused of gang raping her were acquitted while the sixth faces life in prison. She continues to face widespread discrimination in Pakistan and has been subject to house arrest, illegal detention and harassment from the government and law enforcement agencies.[52]

Political abuse of human rights[edit]

Provincial and local governments have arrested journalists and closed newspapers that report on matters perceived as socially offensive or critical of the government or military. Journalists also have been victims of violence and intimidation by various groups and individuals. In spite of these difficulties, the press publishes freely on other matters, although journalists often exercise self-restraint in their writing to avoid inuring the wrath of the government or military.

In 2001, citizens participated in general elections, but those elections were criticized as deeply flawed by domestic and international observers. Societal actors also are responsible for human rights abuses. Violence by drug lords and sectarian militias claims numerous innocent lives, discrimination and violence against women are widespread, human trafficking is problematic, and debt slavery and bonded labor persist.

The government often ignores abuses against children and religious minorities, and some government institutions and Muslim groups have persecuted non-Muslims and used some laws as the legal basis for doing so. The Blasphemy law, for example, allows life imprisonment or the death penalty for contravening Islamic principles, but legislation was passed in October 2004 to attempt to counter misuse of the law.

Furthermore, the social acceptance of many these problems hinders their eradication. One prominent example is honor killings (“karo kari”), which are believed to have accounted for more than 4,000 deaths from 1998 to 2003[citation needed]. Many view this practice as indicative of a feudal mentality and falsely anathema to Islam, but others defend the practice as a means of punishing violators of cultural norms and view attempts to stop it to as an assault on cultural heritage.

Pakistan was recommended by the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in May to be designated as a “Country of Particular Concern” (CPC) by the Department of State because of its government’s engagement or toleration of systematic, ongoing, and egregious violations of religious freedom.[53]

Humanitarian response to conflict[edit]

Violence in Pakistan and the Taliban conflict with the government have heightened humanitarian problems in Pakistan.[54] Political and military interests have been prioritized over humanitarian considerations in the offensives against the Taliban, and issues are likely to get worse as people are encouraged back home prematurely and often face once again being victims of the Taliban terrorists.[54] Displacement is a key problem and humanitarian organizations are failing to address the basic needs of people outside displacement camps, nor are they able to address issues such as the conduct of hostilities and the politicization of the emergency response.[54] Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute argue that aid agencies face dilemmas with engaging with the government, as this does not always produce the desired results and can conflict with their aim of promoting stability and maintaining a principled approach.[54] A principled approach limits their ability to operate when the government emphasizes political and security considerations.[54]

Internally displaced people[edit]

There were over 500,000 people displaced in 2008 mainly from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) on the border with Afghanistan, and a further 1.4 million from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in May 2009.[54] By mid-July 2009, Pakistan’s National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) put the total of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) at just over 2m, while unofficial figures are as high as 3.5m.[54] Most of those displaced (up to 80%) were taken in by relatives, friends and even strangers – Pashtun communities in particular have displayed great efforts in assisting the displaced despite their own high levels of poverty.[54] Still others use schools, but only a small minority live in approximately 30 official camps, mainly in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.[54]

There is little support for those living outside of camps, official support consists only of some food and non-food items and government cash grants.[54] Many of those who have been taken in are looked after by political and religious groups providing assistance in return for membership or support.[54] The government has been struggling to provide support to an area traditionally marginalized and remote and is also keen to downplay the scale of the crisis.[54] Before military operations are undertaken, little preparation is made for the predictable increase in displaced peoples in order to avoid attracting the attention of opposing forces.[54] There are also suggestions that help given to IDPs is informed by cultural and political expediency, as in the case of a $300 family cash grant.[54]

The international community's assistance is marginal in comparison to local efforts due to the rate and scale of displacement; the scattering of displaced populations among host families and in spontaneous settlements; access difficulties due to insecurity and the role of the military in the relief effort.[54] International humanitarian organizations have focused on camp-based populations and this limited interaction has hampered their attempts to analyze the full complexity of the situation, the context, its different actors and their interests – all of which are key to ensuring that the humanitarian imperative is achieved in this complex operating environment.[54]

The cluster method often used for the coordination and funding of humanitarian responses to IDPs have been criticized many agencies have bypassed the UN cluster, such as OFDA and DfID.[54] However, operational agencies also indicated that donors have also been slow to challenge government policy due to their overall support to the Pakistani counter-insurgency effort, as well as lack of influence.[54]

The government has come under criticism also for downplaying the crisis, but also for weakening the position of the UN though the ‘One UN Approach’ in Pakistan, leaving a UN unable to function properly.[54] Furthermore, in an effort to force refugees back to the areas they have fled (in order to create a sense of normalcy), the government has cut off power and water supply to the IDP camps.[54]

"Friends of Pakistan"[edit]

Many donors see the conflict as an opportunity for more comprehensive engagement in an effort to promote stability in the region, to promote a legitimate government and curtail transnational threats.[54] The ‘Friends of Pakistan’ group, which includes the US, the UK and the UN, is key in the international community's drive to promote stability. The US has adopted a joint ‘Af-Pak’ (Afghanistan and Pakistan) strategy in order to suppress the insurgency and defend its national security interests.[54] This strategy seeks engagement with the government and the military intelligence communities, develop civilian and democratic governance, for instance through the provision of services and support in ‘cleared areas’ in FATA and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and increasing assistance including direct budget support, development aid and support with counter-insurgency work.[54] The UK equally sees an opportunity to counter instability and militancy through a combined military and 'hearts and minds' approach, through judicial, governance and security sector reform. The UNDP/WFP takes a similar line.[54]

Yet the success of this approach is by no means clear, as both the government and society at large are not welcoming of foreign interference.[54]USAID takes into account political as well as humanitarian dimensions in its decision making process.[54] Many civilians see little distinction between aid agencies, the military operations and "western interests"; ‘you bomb our villages and then build hospitals’.[54] Many humanitarian organisations thus avoid being too visible and do not mark their aid with their logos.[54] Friends of Pakistan must come forward to assist in her commitment.[according to whom?]

Discrimination against religious minorities[edit]

See also: Religious discrimination in Pakistan and Sectarian violence in Pakistan

Pakistan is known for widespread discrimination against religious minorities, with attacks against Christians, Hindus, Ahmadiyya, Shia, Sufi and Sikh communities being widespread. These attacks are usually blamed on religious extremists but certain laws in the Pakistan Criminal Code and government inaction have only caused these attacks to surge higher.[7]

Sunni militant groups operate with impunity across Pakistan, as law enforcement officials either turn a blind eye or appear helpless to prevent widespread attacks against religious minorities.[8]

Human rights violations of Ahmadi[edit]

Several minority Muslim communities, such as the Ahmadiyya have been attacked in pogroms in Pakistan over the years.[55]

The human rights violation of the Ahmadiyya have been systematic and state-sponsored.[56] General Zia, the military dictator of Pakistan, went many steps further in 1984, when to gain the support of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan, he promulgated the anti-Ahmadiyya Ordinance XX that added Sections 298-B and 298-C in Pakistan Criminal Code.[57]

298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places:

(1) Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves 'Ahmadis' or by any other name who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation- (a) refers to or addresses, any person, other than a Caliph or companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ameer-ul-Mumineen", "Khalifatul- Mumineen", Khalifa-tul-Muslimeen", "Sahaabi" or "Razi Allah Anho"; (b) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a wife of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ummul-Mumineen"; (c) refers to, or addresses, any person, other than a member of the family "Ahle-bait" of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as "Ahle-bait"; or (d) refers to, or names, or calls, his place of worship a "Masjid"; shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine. (2) Any person of the Qadiani group or Lahori group (who call themselves "Ahmadis" or by any other name) who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation refers to the mode or form of call to prayers followed by his faith as "Azan", or recites Azan as used by the Muslims, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

298-C. Person of Qadiani group, etc., calling himself a Muslim or preaching or propagating his faith:

Any person of the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves 'Ahmadis' or by any other name), who directly or indirectly, poses himself as a Muslim, or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam, or preaches or propagates his faith, or invites others to accept his faith, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.

Through this ordinance, Ahmadi Muslims were deprived of most of their basic human rights and their freedom of faith. Under the provisions of this ordinance, an Ahmadi Muslim could be given rigorous imprisonment of 3 years and fined any amount. An Ahmadi can be easily charged for profession of his faith or for ‘posing’ as a Muslim. The ordinance was a green signal for anti-Ahmadiyya elements to open the floodgates of tyranny with the help of the State. The ordinance provides a ready and convenient tool in the hands of fundamentalists and the government to incriminate Ahmadis on flimsy grounds and petty excuses.[58]

Controversial blasphemy laws[edit]

Main article: Blasphemy law in Pakistan

In Pakistan, 1.5% of the population are Christian. Pakistani law mandates that any "blasphemies" of the Quran are to be met with punishment. On July 28, 1994, Amnesty International urged Pakistan's Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto to change the law because it was being used to terrorize religious minorities. She tried, but was unsuccessful. However, she modified the laws to make them more moderate. Her changes were reversed by the Nawaz Sharif administration which was backed by Religious/Political parties.

Here is a list of some notable incidents involving blasphemy accusations:

  • Ayub Masih, a Christian, was convicted of blasphemy and sentenced to death in 1998. He was accused by a neighbor of stating that he supported British writer, Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses. Lower appeals courts upheld the conviction. However, before the Pakistan Supreme Court, his lawyer was able to prove that the accuser had used the conviction to force Mashi's family off their land and then acquired control of the property. Masih has been released.[59]
  • On October 28, 2001 in Lahore, Pakistan, Islamic militants killed 15 Christians at a church.
  • On September 25, 2002 two terrorists entered the "Peace and Justice Institute", Karachi, where they separated Muslims from the Christians, and then executed eight Christians by shooting them in the head.[60]
  • In 2001, Pervaiz Masih, Head Master of a Christian High School in Sialkot was arrested on false blasphemy charges by the owner of another school in the vicinity.
  • On September 25, 2002, unidentified gunmen shot dead seven people at a Christian charity in Karachi's central business district. They entered the third-floor offices of the Institute for Peace and Justice (IPJ) and shot their victims in the head. All of the victims were Pakistani Christians. Karachi police chief Tariq Jamil said the victims had their hands tied and their mouths had been covered with tape. Pakistani Christians have alleged that they have "become increasingly victimised since the launch of the US-led international war on terror."[61]
  • In November 2005, 3,000 militant Islamists attacked Christians in Sangla Hill in Pakistan and destroyed Roman Catholic, Salvation Army and United Presbyterian churches. The attack was over allegations of violation of blasphemy laws by a Pakistani Christian named Yousaf Masih. The attacks were widely condemned by some political parties in Pakistan.[62] However, Pakistani Christians have expressed disappointment that they have not received justice. Samson Dilawar, a parish priest in Sangla Hill, has said that the police have not committed to trial any of the people who were arrested for committing the assaults, and that the Pakistani government did not inform the Christian community that a judicial inquiry was underway by a local judge. He continued to say that Muslim clerics "make hateful speeches about Christians" and "continue insulting Christians and our faith".[63]
  • In February 2006, churches and Christian schools were targeted in protests over the publications of the Jyllands-Posten cartoons in Denmark, leaving two elderly women injured and many homes and properties destroyed. Some of the mobs were stopped by police.[64]
  • In August 2006, a church and Christian homes were attacked in a village outside of Lahore, Pakistan in a land dispute. Three Christians were seriously injured and one missing after some 35 Muslims burned buildings, desecrated Bibles and attacked Christians.[65]
  • On September 22, 2006, a Pakistani Christian named Shahid Masih was arrested and jailed for allegedly violating Islamic "blasphemy laws" in Pakistan. He is presently held in confinement and has expressed fear of reprisals by Islamic Fundamentalists.[66]
  • On August 1, 2009, nearly 40 houses and a church in Gojra were torched on the suspicion that Quran had been burnt there. While police watched, 8 victims were burned alive, 4 of them women, one aged 7. Eighteen more were injured.
  • In 2012 a young Christian woman, Rimsha Masih, was arrested on blasphemy charge, but released after a few weeks in high security lock-up as a result of international outrage.[67]
  • On March 9, 2013, two days after Sawan Masih, a Christian, was accused of blasphemy. A mob of two thousand Muslims torched over 200 homes and two churches. Masih was sentenced to death the following year.[68]
  • In April 2014 a Christian couple from Gojra, Shafqat Emmanuel and Shagufta Kausar, received death sentences.[67]
  • On May 7, 2014 Rashid Rahman, a lawyer representing a university professor Junaid Hafeez accused of blaspehmy was murdered in the Pakistani city of Multan. In response the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and some other civil organizations protested in front of the Karachi Press Club in the city of Karachi.[69]

Based, in part, on such incidents, Pakistan was recommended by the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in May 2006 to be designated as a "Country of Particular Concern" (CPC) by the Department of State.[65]

Intolerance against Hindus and other minorities[edit]

As of April 2012, Pakistan did not provide a legal system for registration of marriages for certain minorities including Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and Bahá'í.[70][71] Denial of recognition of Hindu marriages is often used to intimidate and harass Hindus. Married Hindu women have been forcibly kidnapped and married to Muslims, and are left without legal recourse due to inability to prove their previous marriage.[72] It also makes it difficult for Hindus to obtain the Computerized National Identity Card.[72]

The increasing Islamization has caused many Hindus to leave Hinduism and seek emancipation by converting to other faiths such as Buddhism and Christianity. Such Islamization include the blasphemy laws, which make it dangerous for religious minorities to express themselves freely and engage freely in religious and cultural activities.[73]

Minority members of the Pakistan National Assembly have alleged that Hindus were being hounded and humiliated to force them to leave Pakistan.[74] Hindu women have been known to be victims of kidnapping and forced conversion to Islam.[75]Krishan Bheel, one of a handful of Hindu members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, came into news recently for manhandling Qari Gul Rehman, who had repeatedly provoked him by making declaratory statements against his religion.[76]

Hindus in what is now Pakistan have declined from 23% of the total population in 1947 to 1.5% today. The report condemns Pakistan for systematic state-sponsored religious discrimination against Hindus through bigoted "anti-blasphemy" laws. It documents numerous reports of millions of Hindus being held as "bonded laborers" in slavery-like conditions in rural Pakistan, something repeatedly ignored by the Pakistani government.

Separate electorates for Hindus and Christians were established in 1985—a policy originally proposed by Islamist leader Abul A'la Maududi. Christian and Hindu leaders complained that they felt excluded from the county's political process, but the policy had strong support from Islamists.[77] In the aftermath of the Babri Masjid demolition Pakistani Hindus faced riots. Mobs attacked five Hindu temples in Karachi and set fire to 25 temples in towns across the province of Sindh. Shops owned by Hindus were also attacked in Sukkur.Hindu homes and temples were also attacked in Quetta.[78] In 2005, 32 Hindus were killed by firing from the government side near Nawab Akbar Bugti's residence during bloody clashes between Bugti tribesmen and paramilitary forces in Balochistan. The firing left the Hindu residential locality near Bugti's residence badly hit.[79]

The rise of Taliban insurgency in Pakistan has been an influential and increasing factor in the persecution of and discrimination against religious minorities in Pakistan, such as Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, and other minorities.[80] It is said that there is persecution of religious minorities in Pakistan.[81][82] In July 2010, around 60 members of the minority Hindu community in Karachi were attacked and evicted from their homes following an incident of a Dalit Hindu youth drinking water from a tap near an Islamic Mosque.[83][84] In January 2014, a policeman standing guard outside a Hindu temple at Peshawar was gunned down.[85] Pakistan's Supreme Court has sought a report from the government on its efforts to ensure access for the minority Hindu community to temples – the Karachi bench of the apex court was hearing applications against the alleged denial of access to the members of the minority community.[86][87][88]

Since March 2005, 209 people have been killed and 560 injured in 29 different terrorist attacks targeting shrines devoted to Sufi saints in Pakistan, according to data compiled by the Center for Islamic Research Collaboration and Learning (CIRCLe).[89] At least as of 2010, the attacks have increased each year. The attacks are generally attributed to banned militant organizations of Deobandi or Ahl-e-Hadith (Salafi) backgrounds.[90] (Primarily Deobandi background according to another source—author John R. Schmidt).[91]

Pakistan's citizens have had serious Shia-Sunni discord. An estimated 75–95% of Pakistan's Muslim population is Sunni,[5][6] while an estimated 5–20% is Shia,[5][6] but this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country,[92] larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. Although relations between Shia and Sunni were once cordial, some see a precursor of Pakistani Shia–Sunni strife in the April 1979 execution of deposed President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on questionable charges by Islamic fundamentalist General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who subsequently took over as dictator of Pakistan. Zia ul-Haq was a Sunni.[93]

Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization that followed was resisted by Shia who saw it as "Sunnification" as the laws and regulations were based on Sunni fiqh. In July 1980, 25,000 Shia protested the Islamization laws in the capital Islamabad. Further exacerbating the situation was the dislike between Shia leader Imam Khomeini and General Zia ul-Haq.[94]Zia-ul-Haq pursued anti-Shia policies[95] and attacks on Shias also increased under Zia's presidency,[96] with the first major sectarian riots in Pakistan breaking out in 1983 in Karachi and later spreading to Lahore and Balochistan.[97] Sectarian violence became a recurring feature of the Muharram month every year, with sectarian violence between Sunnis and Shias taking place in 1986 in Parachinar.[97] In one notorious incident, the 1988 Gilgit Massacre, Osama bin Laden-led Sunni tribals assaulted, massacred and raped Shia civilians in Gilgit after being inducted by the Pakistan Army to quell a Shia uprising in Gilgit.[98][99][100][101][102] From 1987–2007, "as many as 4,000 people are estimated to have died in sectarian fighting in Pakistan", 300 being killed in 2006.[103] With thousands more being killed since then as the violence has only gotten much worse.[7] In 2013 alone more than 400 Shia have been killed in targeted attacks that took place across Pakistan.[8] Amongst the culprits blamed for the killing are Al-Qaeda working "with local sectarian groups" to kill what they perceive as Shia apostates, and "foreign powers ... trying to sow discord."[103] Outside funding for these Sunni Militia comes mostly from Saudi Arabia and other gulf states which have a predominantly Sunni population and leadership. Most violence takes place in the largest province of Punjab and the country's commercial and financial capital, Karachi.[104] There have also been conflagrations in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Azad Kashmir.[104]

In the 33rd session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, India raised the issue of persecution of religious minorities in Pakistan. India said, "religious and sectarian minorities such as Hindus, Christians, Shias, Ahmaddiyas, Ismailis and others continue to face discrimination, persecution and targeted attacks in Pakistan. Places of worship belonging to minorities have been destroyed and vandalized. Blasphemy laws remain in force and are disproportionately used against religious minorities."[105]

Due to religious persecution in Pakistan, Hindus continue to flee to India.[106] Most of them tend to settle in the state of Rajasthan in India.[107] According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan data, just around 1,000 Hindu families fled to India in 2013.[107] In May 2014, a member of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Dr Ramesh Kumar Vankwani, revealed in the National Assembly of Pakistan that around 5,000 Hindus are migrating from Pakistan to India every year.[108]

Forced conversions[edit]

Forced and coerced conversions of religious minorities to Islam occurred at the hands of societal actors. Religious minorities claimed that government actions to stem the problem were inadequate. Several human rights groups have highlighted the increased phenomenon of Hindu girls, particularly in Karachi, being kidnapped from their families and forced to convert to Islam. The Human Rights groups have reported that the cases of forced conversion are increasing.[109][110] A 2014 report says about 1,000 Christian and Hindu women in Pakistan are forcibly converted to Islam every year.[111][112][113][114]

In 2003 a six-year-old Sikh girl was kidnapped by a member of the Afridi tribe in Northwest Frontier Province; he also claimed the girl had converted to Islam and therefore could not be returned to her family.[115]

Since the turn of the century non-Sunni minorities as the Kalash and Ismailis have been threatened with conversion to Islam or death by the Taliban and other radical Islamic groups.[116] Well known Pakistani sportsperson-politician Imran Khan condemned the forced conversions threat as un-Islamic [117]

On October 12, 2012, Ryan Stanton, a Christian boy of 16, went into hiding after being accused of blasphemy and after his home was ransacked by a crowd. Stanton stated that he had been framed because he had rebuffed pressures to convert to Islam.[118][119]

Rinkle Kumari, a 19-year Pakistani student, Lata Kumari, and Asha Kumari, a Hindu working in a beauty parlor, were allegedly forced to convert from Hinduism to Islam.[120][121] Their cases were appealed all the way to the Supreme Court of Pakistan where they said that they wanted to live with their parents and not their 'so called' husbands.[122]

See also[edit]


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